8. Conventions Used in This Book

All examples presented in this book assume you are using a sh compatible shell. The bash shell is sh compatible and is the standard shell of all Linux distributions. If you happen to be a csh user, you will have to make appropriate adjustments.

The following is a list of the typographical conventions used in this book:


Used for file and directory names, program and command names, command-line options, email addresses and pathnames, URLs, and for emphasizing new terms.


Used for machine names, hostnames, site names, usernames and IDs, and for occasional emphasis.

Constant Width

Used in examples to show the contents of code files or the output from commands and to indicate environment variables and keywords that appear in code.

Constant Width Italic

Used to indicate variable options, keywords, or text that the user is to replace with an actual value.

Constant Width Bold

Used in examples to show commands or other text that should be typed literally by the user.


Text appearing in this manner offers a warning. You can make a mistake here that hurts your system or is hard to recover from.