FBB Packet-radio BBS mini-HOWTO

Miroslav "Misko" Skoric, YT7MPB, skoric at eunet dot rs

v1.49, 2010-07-18
This mini-HOWTO covers the installation and use of the most popular amateur packet-radio BBS server software "FBB". That software works under Linux, DOS and Windows operating systems. It serves as a bulletin board system (BBS), a mailbox for personal messages, a database for various texts, documents and binary files, a server for small useful calculations etc. Packet radio is a way of connecting computers via amateur radio stations.

1. Introduction

2. How to install X11 (Xwindow) version of LinFBB

3. How to install LinFBB in addition to existing WinFBB

4. How to install Protus password utility

5. How to install "xfbbd", a daemon version of LinFBB

6. How to install an upgrade to a daemon version of LinFBB

7. How to use LinFBB's "xfbbX", a GUI client for Linux

8. How to use LinFBB's "xfbbW", a GUI client for Windows

9. How to compile LinFBB's executable files

10. How to access the "xfbbd" server from a DOS client?

11. How to communicate with LinFBB in Serbian?

12. How to make better ham radio rules?

13. Bibliography

14. Further information

15. Getting help

1. Introduction

I have been using FBB amateur radio software since early nineties. It was the time of DOS operating system, so most of us, system administrators (or, so called system operators - sysop's), used various packet radio server software for DOS. Versions of FBB packet radio BBS server software for DOS, today are known as "DosFBB".

I still administer one DosFBB database in the SRV (Amateur Radio Union of Vojvodina, a part of SRJ). It is DosFBB v7.00g23 that runs on a 486DX computer with 16 MB of RAM and Hercules b/w graphics. Since December 1999, it runs without any re-boot (excepting some power failures). Before that, it was a bit tricky to set up all memory management properly, in order to avoid "frozen" system. Although this server runs under DOS, its "radio clients" don't depend on that. In fact, users of that DosFBB might run their client software under DOS, Windows, Linux or any other operating system that offer amateur packet radio abilities.

I have also used DosFBB v5.15c on a 286/12 box at home. Five years ago, when I got better box, Pentium I at 166 MHz with 32 MB of RAM and VGA color graphics, I switched to a Windows version of FBB ("WinFBB"). Author of the software, a radio amateur from France, Jean-Paul F6FBB, has made many versions of WinFBB, including 16 bit variant for Windows 3.x and Windows 9x as well as 32 bit variant for Windows NT. I have run both variants until now (at the moment it is 16 bit WinFBB v7.00g25 that runs great under Windows NT 4.0).

Update: In late 1999, I upgraded my system to Celeron 400 MHz, added more 64 MB of RAM and switched to bigger hard disk that will have enough room to install Linux and try LinFBB ...

Update: Since Spring 2001, I run WinFBB v7.00i (17 March 2001) under Windows 2000 Professional.

The main difference between DosFBB and WinFBB is that the second one offers you to do other jobs with your computer, while FBB is running as just any other application. Besides that, it is always nice to copy some text from another application (for example, from an Internet email) and to paste it into a packet radio message, or vice versa.

Update: In July 2001, I added more 128 MB of RAM so my home system is very confortable now.

Finally, you should be aware what I want to have here:

      1. WinFBB when I run Windows.

      2. LinFBB when I run Linux. It should be an
         Xwindow application that may be
         started/stopped similarly to WinFBB.
         That's why X11 LinFBB package is used.

      3. LinFBB when I run Linux, but as a daemon
         that runs in the background. In addition,
         an interface for a local user (myself)
         is needed, as well as an interface to
         monitor the radio channel.

      4. All three versions must be capable to
         share the same configuration files, i.e.
         to be able, for example, to begin a new
         session from the exact position where the
         other version has finished its own last

      5. I am not an expert in Linux, so I am
         only able to install "factory-made"
         packages for Linux (just like to install
         self executing software packages under
         Windows). I mean of RPM packages. So, there
         are no source (re)compilations here at the
         moment, but in the future we will see  :-)

2. How to install X11 (Xwindow) version of LinFBB

3. How to install LinFBB in addition to existing WinFBB

Notice: Folks, you see, at my place, I have a dual-boot system, consisting of Windows NT and Linux (each of them having their own partition(s) and file system). I wanted to have 'independent' operating systems that won't see each other. So I made two NT's partitions as NTFS partitions and rest of the space used Linux as ext2 & swap partitions. Well, at first I have installed WinFBB under NT and X11 LinFBB under Linux. Both of them worked, but there was a big "problem": I could not share their system files. You might say: So, what a big deal. But, my FBB's should serve as packet-radio forwarding stations (regardless of which one I boot at the moment), so it was really needed for new LinFBB to "know", for example, the position where WinFBB has stopped the mail exchange last time (and vice- versa, of course).

4. How to install Protus password utility

Notice: Well, I have been using Protus connection filters for a long time now. At first, it was the version 3.1/1.2 for DosFBB515c and, later, version 3.3 for Dos/WinFBB700. I have found Protus as very useful utility because of its implementation of automated BBS-to-BBS forwarding protection, using MD2 algorithm. One of the reasons to cover Protus in this document is the fact that its author haven't made a manual in English yet. I keep trying to translate original manuals from Spanish into English, but it is a hard work. Any good 'Spanish-to-English' translator is welcomed to contact me: skoric at eunet dot rs

Protus offers several interesting features:

Well, let's see what should be done in order to implement secure access to the FBB packet radio BBS, using Protus type of, so called, c_filter:

5. How to install "xfbbd", a daemon version of LinFBB

Notice: You see, folks, that I keep trying to get as many as possible versions of this great software (Jean-Paul, F6FBB, must be very proud after reading these words now). What I think when mention "as many as possible versions" means that we have learned how to get both WinFBB and X11 LinFBB on the same computer. But, that's not all. There is a variety of daemon versions of LinFBB. In this section we are going to discuss how to *add* a daemon LinFBB to the existing two: X11 LinFBB and WinFBB!

6. How to install an upgrade to a daemon version of LinFBB

6.1 LinFBB v7.02g

Notice: Well, the main trouble I have discovered with 7.01f daemon was the absence of Protus c_filter protection. As I told you before, Protus is a "third-party" product, so it might have some problems with the compatibility to LinFBB itself. Anyway, it is also possible that a daemon version of LinFBB has some special requirements over some "third-party" software.

6.2 LinFBB v7.03

Notice: As I have said in the previous section, I haven't found an easy way to upgrade FBB's (its main executables), without temporary uninstalling an older version, then to install the new version - in order to get new executables. After that is done, a reverse procedure must be put in place.

6.3 LinFBB v7.04

Notice: Maybe I have already explained that I use Red Hat 6.2 at home. That's why I usually look for .rpm packages that have been made for that particular Linux distribution, but not only that. I have also tried to use Red Hat 7.1 but it seemed not to support an older Xwindow application, LinFBB 7.00g (04 August 1998). When I noticed that issue, I returned back to Red Hat 6.2.

7. How to use LinFBB's "xfbbX", a GUI client for Linux


Well, soon after the installation of LinFBB v7.04 .rpm package, I noticed a new "kid on the block", i.e. a new item within the Start menu (under Gnome environment). That was a "HamRadio" group, having several "Xfbb version 7.04" sub-items and one of them was "xfbbd X Client".

It seemed that a mouse click on that "xfbbd X Client" icon was not likely to return any response, although xfbbd daemon has been successfully running before invoking the client. That's why I have been asking for help (related to that issue) from other LinFBB users, but it seemed there was no one capable to solve that problem. Anyway, it looks to me that there is a "dead" link from this "xfbbd X Client" icon to an existing executable.

Trying to find a solution, the other day I was browsing the /usr/sbin directory. I have noticed something that I have already seen for several times. That was xfbbX file. Well, I am sure that I tried to use this executable earlier, but without much success. This time, I have entered the full path, like this:


and, finally, the GUI client appeared on the screen.

So far - so good. Soon after, I realized that 'Monitoring' window was capable to monitor the actual traffic on the radio frequency, but not only that. Headers of all packets appear in green and the actual information is in blue, so it is easy to distinguish what is the header and what is the text info (comparing to my old X11 LinFBB application where everything came in black). What I could describe as a disadvantage of the 'Monitoring' window, is that the scroll bar does not give you much of the previous, already scrolled traffic.

The 'All channels' screen was even better, so the system user correspondents' traffic appeared in green, the local user's traffic was in black and the port information was in yellow. Unfortunately, there's no easy way (if any) to change colors (and that's the standard feature in WinFBB) for both 'Monitoring' and 'All channels' windows. Maybe I haven't managed yet to find a switch for that, so any useful info about is appreciated.

What I have also found a bit annoying, was that both windows mentioned above, appear not arranged side-by-side, a form that would be more suitable. Besides that, the third window, 'Console', has to be activated with another mouse click (instead of being activated automatically with the other two windows). Actually, the whole thing of xfbbX client seems to be primarily useful for sysops looking only for BBS's command line, in order to execute some server's commands etc. That's why I have found a bit strange why the console window must be activated separately (OK, I know that's the same with WinFBB's windows, but why not to add some additional feature?)

Anyway, the 'Console' connection window has almost the same functionality as WinFBB's 'Console' window. Here I think of the commands given at the BBS's command prompt, because they are invoked from the usual language *.TXT files.

But, the big disadvantage of today's version of xfbbX client, I've found here, is the absence of several useful icons, that I was very fond of within the WinFBB's user interface. For example, there are no icons for pending mail, users information, disconnect a user, edit a message text or a header etc. It looks to me that xfbbX developers are not likely to offer the full comfort that we have within WinFBB's GUI. It makes me wonder why? There are lots of commands that can not be easily activated without the proper icons. It drives me crazy whenever I have to re-boot to Windows to start WinFBB, in order to perform some simple tasks mentioned, using the mouse.

Besides that, there is no way to activate that nice message editor screen, very useful in WinFBB (also existed in an old Xwindow LinFBB application v7.00g from 1998!) The same goes for replying a message, where a sender does not get the text of a message to be replied to, within the new message body. In short, I don't like absence of all those earlier implemented, but now abandoned features.

Well, I can't imagine what Jean-Paul, F6FBB, and other developers would do in the future, but I am not satisfied with the idea to only keep further development of LinFBB server side, but, in the same time, to abandon the development of LinFBB's graphical client side. And not only that: It looks that MS Windows client for LinFBB server, xfbbW has been reported to be much more functional that described xfbbX, while, in the same time, WinFBB server development has been also stopped. A bit confusing situation, isn't it?

Some amateurs think that it is just a result of "global" IT situation: Linux (as well as other Unix-type platforms) is better suited for servers, but Windows is better for clients. If so, it looks that LinFBB packet-radio system operators, "sysop's", seem to be forced to run at least two computers, in order to get the same functionality they always had with WinFBB. I'd rather suggest to Jean-Paul, F6FBB, and other developers to transfer all known WinFBB's GUI features to xfbbX GUI environment, in order to avoid using two computers.


A couple of paragraphs ago, I said that "xfbbd X Client" icon didn't work under Gnome environment. It did make me wonder if it would work under KDE graphical user interface. So, this time I started KDE (and I did it as "root" so, in addition, I also got a mailbox icon on the desktop, named "fbb X11". When I located the mouse pointer over that icon, there appeared some more description: "F6FBB bbs Server for Packet Radio").

Well, when I tried to click on that icon, I got a KFM Warning message box explaining that program /root/.xfbbX could not be executed. Fortunately, a "right click" on the icon allowed to enter file's Properties. The Execute card gave me a possibility to change the path for a program to be used. So, I did some browsing and located the new path: /usr/sbin/xfbbX. After that, another click resulted in running the GUI client.

Interestingly, there is some slight difference between xfbbX appearance under KDE and Gnome. Actually, each KDE's xfbbX window has "FBB" logo in the upper left corner (Gnome's windows haven't that). That may indicate that xfbbX client was produced primarily for KDE environment. Besides that, it seems that other features are almost the same, regardless being within KDE or Gnome environment.

On the other side, the already mentioned "xfbbd X Client" item (within the Start menu, under the "HamRadio" group), still does not work. I suppose that there should also be some modifications, related to program executable paths, but I do not know how to manage that. Anyway, it does not matter because xfbbX is running here this or that way.


A recent email from Jose, HI8GN, related to the xfbbX GUI client, about the RPM package:

"The reason of the why not the xfbbd X Client didn't give you any answer is for several causes. 1) if the xfbbd daemon is not running the xfbbd X client won't run. 2) if the xfbbd is dead in its process. 3) if the xfbbd was not shutoff correctly, but delete the xfbbd lock file as this:

. /etc/init.d/rc.fbb stop or service rc.fbb stop, and then it was run and didn't create the xfbbd lock file, the shell script looks for the existence the /var/lock/subsys/xfbbd or /var/lock/subsys/xfbbX lock file and 4) if the xfbb X11 Server it is running it create a xfbbX lock file by that the xfbbd X client won't neither run

the same thing makes the X11 Client the one it verifies that the xfbbd is not running

if you make a click on the Icon that says fbb X11 Client and it doesn't run it is because the one is seeing that there is a process of the xfbbd running like as daemon. the script rc.fbb I have also modified it so that it can not be executed twice.

if exist xfbbX lock file the xfbbd X client won't run if exist xfbbd lock file the fbb X11 won't run.

Lastly if you execute the command fbb in the console or in xterminal in the desktop, you will see what I mean that simple."

Thanks Jose!

8. How to use LinFBB's "xfbbW", a GUI client for Windows


Notice: Well, folks, I couldn't try to install and use LinFBB client for Windows, because I have not had a second computer for that purpose. The only way to check how this client works, was to borrow a laptop machine and give it a try.

The first task was to link that Windows laptop to a Linux desktop. I had some difficulties with the network card on the desktop box, because it seemed not to be likely to start the appropriate eth0 interface. I'll give you some more details about the equipment here: Linux is Red Hat 6.2 and my ISA network card has UMC UM9008 chip. Long ago, I used some utilities that should "recognize" ISA cards (if I remember their names, that were isapnptools, pnpdump etc).

What I do know, is that such tools should have add some new lines into the existing files, like /etc/conf.modules or, to create some new files, like /etc/isapnp*. Well, I have forgotten what exactly should be done, so I went to look for the right tools. The one that was looking suitable was /sbin/isapnp. Although I got its response on the screen, telling that the UM9008 chip was recognized, there was nothing added to the system files, nor new files seemed to be created.

What I also tried to use, was the old good Linuxconf tool, that was already installed per default within RH 6.2 Linux. I found the right place to add the information related to NIC's IRQ and I/O address. There I seemed to make a little mistake, so I put the value of 220 (for the I/O address), instead of 0x220 that would better fit. The result was as one may expect: the interface eth0 continued to report that a ne module had not found a card at that one address. Then I checked the actual I/O address the card uses under Windows OS (was the same) and tried to fix the parameters (Thanks goes to a UK ham who advised me to have to let Linux know the proper IRQ and I/O addresses).

Interestingly, Linuxconf added a couple of new lines into /etc/conf.modules too. In short, the next time during the system boot, the interface eth0 reported a green [OK], so I could establish the link. So far - so good.

The next task was to download the client package from the FBB's main site. I did it from the "Newest version" web page and the number of the version was 1.12 (it seems that was not a pretty much new version, or maybe the content on that "newest" page has not been updated recently - another task for Jean-Paul?). Anyway, I installed it without any problem, configured its part related to the LinFBB server it was about to access, changed the console font to my favorite one (Tahoma) and started the utility.

At the first sight, the client looked great, because Linux clients still prefer so small letters, that are hard to read (compared to characters on a Windows screen). Now I tried the most used commands like List, Read, Send Reply etc. All of them worked great. What I have found a bit strange, was that the message justification did not work in its message editor window. You see, I like my messages to be justified on both sides. I hope a solution for that problem will be found soon.

Another issue with xfbbW client is that seems not to allow a multiple click onto more than one BBS callsign within pending forward list, comparing to WinFBB's behavior. You know, I am not very fond of opening the same pending forward window repeatedly again and again, in order to start (or to stop) more than one forwarding action.

In general, I like xfbbW client. I hope to install some newer version(s) soon, and I hope some of its features will be upgraded and some new ones will be added in the future. What I would also like to have, is to activate the maintenance of the BBS (a "housekeeping" task) from that client's menu. Another thing I miss at the moment, is the absence of the xfbbW's help system. I mean of a real Windows help, because there's not much use of a Help menu, having only Copyright and About information :-))

9. How to compile LinFBB's executable files

9.1 fbbsrc.704h (using Red Hat 7.1)


Notice: Until recently, I preferred to download "factory-made" executables in RPM format (something like ZIP in MS Windows world). After getting a RPM package, a click on it activates the program that unpack and install its content. Well, it is great whenever your RPM has been "manufactured" for the very similar distribution of Linux you have. If not ...

9.2 fbbsrc.704j (using Red Hat 7.1)


Notice: The other day I tried to upgrade my Red Hat 7.1 distribution to Red Hat 9.0 - in order to get more up-to-date system, being also capable to be upgraded from its original Netscape 4.76 browser to Netscape 7.1 (In fact, the more newer Netscape I need for other purposes - not related to FBB stuff at all - but I have not succeeded to perform a kind of a 'browser-only' upgrade (In fact, Netscape 7.1 needs newer Glibc and some other things not easily being upgraded within under Red Hat 7.1). That's why I decided to upgrade the complete Linux system - i.e. not just reinstalling it 'from scratch'. The reason for that was I wanted to preserve my old Netscape Messenger email directory tree etc). So, at first, I made cca. 450 MB of free space on my / partition, hoping that would be enough to upgrade. But, RH 9.0's setup asked for even more 400 MB - that I couldn't made. Then I tried to make a 'fresh' installation of RH 9.0 and it also looked that I had better supply a larger hard disk (besides that, it seemed that RH 9.0 performed a bit slower on my system than the old RH 7.1). Finally, I made a decision to re-install RH 7.1 again.

After I did it, one of the first tasks to do was to install LinFBB. I took some browsing in order to find something newer than that fbbsrc.704h and I've got fbbsrc.704j tarball from ftp://www.f6fbb.org/pub/f6fbb/distrib/linux/src

9.3 fbbsrc.704j (using Red Hat 9.0)


Notice: Although I managed to compile all parts of the newest LinFBB version, I was not so happy because my Linux platform was still the old one: Red Hat 7.1 and I wanted to have 9.0 version. That's why I started planning what to do with the things intended to be backup-ed before the another fresh installation of Linux. The main trouble were the existing Netscape 4.76 email folders, because it was obvious that the 4.76 directory structure greatly differ from Netscape 7.1 folder tree. In fact, a user of Netscape 4.76 email only has to make a backup copy of the hidden .nsmail directory that, in turn, has to be restored into the same location after the eventual next re-installation of the Red Hat 7.1 distribution. That is a simple task to do. But, the problem with newer Netscape 7.1 was that it has the different directory tree when compared to its predecessor, in addition to a slightly changed email structure. In fact, I tried to use Netscape 4.76's .nsmail directory with the fresh Netscape 7.1 installation and that just didn't want to run properly. Than I looked for another way to accomplish that task and here is how I did it.

I already knew that Netscape and Mozilla software (in particular the newer one versions of them) converge in a way they seem to use a similar or the very same "engine" as well as the directory structure. Having in mind that the newer Red Hat 9.0 distribution have not offered any version of Netscape software at all and that Mozilla packages remained in the newer Red Hat's - I decided to perform the following steps:

1. to make a simple upgrade from Red Hat 7.1 to Red Hat 9.0 (in order to keep the original Netscape's 4.76 .nsmail directory structure intact, but to get an up-to-dated version of Mozilla which comes with this particular Red Hat upgrade and that is the same as Mozilla after the 'fresh' installation of RH 9.0);

2. to make an import of the existing email from Netscape 4.76 to Mozilla (interestingly, the new Mozilla only supports an import from a "Netscape 4.x");

3. to make a backup copy of the new Mozilla's directory structure;

4. to make a 'fresh' installation of Red Hat 9.0 (in order to ensure the stable environment that, in turn, will also have the same new Mozilla);

5. to make a 'restore' of Mozilla's directory structure (previously backup-ed);

6. to install the new Netscape 7.1 that, as mentioned, will use the same directory structure as the new Mozilla;

7. to have a choice: to run either Netscape or Mozilla (if you get bored from either of them :-)).

Well, these steps were the nice mental exercise, but finally I got them all running as I wanted. After I got sure that the Internet email and browsing capabilities of my new Red Hat 9.0 became OK, I got to the beginning of LinFBB installation procedure. Now I am not going to repeat the items from the previous LinFBB sub-section, but what I would like to say is that the step 4. (a couple of paragraphs above) have not brought some X Window development packages, needed for compiling of xfbbX. I mean, once again I managed to compile xfbbd and xfbbC without problems, but a make of xfbbX haven't produced the result I expected. In fact, it returned something like this:

[root@localhost X11]# make
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  ...
In file included from ../../include/xfbb.h:34,


xfbbabtd.c: In function `DisplayInfoDialog':
xfbbabtd.c:428: warning: comparison between pointer and integer
make: *** [xfbbabtd.o] Error 1
[root@localhost X11]#

I was advised by the friendly FBB-hams that obviously something of the X Window development stuff have been missing, so I started to explore the RPM's I already have installed:

[root@localhost root]# rpm -qa *lesst*
[root@localhost root]#

      lesstif-devel-0.93.36-3.i386.rpm required 
      XFree86-devel and lesstif = 0.93.36

      XFree86-devel-4.3.0-2.i386.rpm required
      fontconfig-devel and pkgconfig

      fontconfig-devel-2.1-9.i386.rpm required
      freetype-devel >= 2.1.2-7

What remains to be explored (at least for me) is to see how to maintain various sysop's tasks (ex. how to execute 'housekeeping' mechanism by a mouse click or like) - from within xfbbX. Your suggestions are welcomed (they can be added as contributions to the next releases of this mini-HOWTO!).

9.4 fbbsrc.704o (using Mandrake 9.1)


Notice: I started to play with Mandrake release 9.1 for i586 (Bamboo) some two years ago. That version was equipped with kernel 2.4.21-0.13mdk and, as you can expect, after the installation of the new OS, I decided to put fbbsrc.704j on it because I was familiar with version 7.04j. Unfortunately, in that particular iteration I have only managed to compile the server part of LinFBB (xfbbd) and despite my best efforts I couldn't have produced the graphical client (xfbbX). As you have learned above what I was experiencing with earlier LinFBB versions when I was about to compile GUI clients, I tried to follow the same procedure once again: I mean to ensure that Motif (LessTif) was there etc. But whatever I tried to install/uninstall I haven't got any success with the client. So, I ended up with running xfbbd v. 7.04j and xfbbX v. 7.00g24 (dated Oct 16 1999) which was included in 7.04j tarball. You can imagine that I was not happy with such confusing situation, so I decided to try something that reached the markets in Sep 2007: a new version 7.04o

Since the previous version I was using, it seems that LinFBB has changed its maintainer, though I don't know if Bernard, F6BVP took the 'job' from F6FBB officially or not. Regardless of that, I expected to see some improvements in a way they constructed GUI clients to make it easier to compile xfbbX - regardless a distribution of Linux being used. This time I downloaded the package from F6BVP's location: http://f6bvp.free.fr/logiciels/BBS-f6fbb/xd704o-src.tgz

The procedure with xd704o-src.tgz is the same as it was with earlier versions of LinFBB - so I am not going to replay how to compile the executable files. A new fact for me was that the base directory tree of LinFBB keeps changing (it started to change from version 7.04n). Now, almost all parts of the program have to be placed in subdirectories of /usr/local but at the first moment I missed that point. To be precize, I was used earlier to put new executables into /usr/sbin directory with other similar files, the configuration files into /etc, etc. When I tried to activate xfbbd within the old locations, nothing happened so I thought the compilation process might have failured. After recognizing my mistake and moving the program parts in accordance with instructions provided (always read the manuals!), another incarnation of LinFBB daemon started to run immediately. To be honest, I haven't noticed anything special with it, so I rushed to compile the client xfbbX.

By the way, besides the location I downloaded xd704o-src.tgz from, I also noticed http://f6bvp.free.fr/logiciels/BBS-f6fbb/xd704o_i386.tgz which I supposed to be a version for older CPUs, like PI or PII. Instead, it appeared that it was the complete structure of LinFBB's new directory tree, including already compiled versions of xfbbd and other executables, minus the client xfbbX - which found me a bit disapointed.

I did not have any option but to try compilation of xfbbX by myself. At first, I tried to position myself to the proper location, as follows:

[root@server src]# cd X11

Then I invoked make command:

[root@server X11]# make
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25   -c -o xfbbabtd.o xfbbabtd.c
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25   -c -o xfbbcnsl.o xfbbcnsl.c
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25   -c -o xfbbedtm.o xfbbedtm.c
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25   -c -o xfbbedtu.o xfbbedtu.c
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25   -c -o xfbblcnx.o xfbblcnx.c
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25   -c -o xfbbmain.o xfbbmain.c
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25   -c -o xfbbpndd.o xfbbpndd.c
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25   -c -o xeditor.o xeditor.c
xeditor.c: In function `ManageFindDB':
xeditor.c:1511: warning: implicit declaration of function `_XmGrabTheFocus'
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25 -c -o xfbb.o xfbb.c
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25 -o xfbb xfbb.o ../arbre.o ../autobin.o ../balise.o ../bidexms.o ../conf.o ../console.o ../date.o ../devio.o ../dos_1.o ../dos_dir.o ../driver.o ../drv_aea.o ../drv_ded.o ../drv_hst.o ../drv_kam.o ../drv_mod.o ../drv_pop.o ../drv_sock.o ../drv_tcp.o ../edit.o ../ems.o ../error.o ../exec_pg.o ../fbb_conf.o ../fortify.o ../forward.o ../fwdovl1.o ../fwdovl2.o ../fwdovl3.o ../fwdovl4.o ../fwdovl5.o ../fwdovl6.o ../fwdovl7.o ../fwdutil.o ../gesfic.o ../ibm.o ../info.o ../init.o ../init_srv.o ../init_tnc.o ../initfwd.o ../initport.o ../k_tasks.o ../kernel.o ../lzhuf.o ../maint_fw.o ../mbl_edit.o ../mbl_expo.o ../mbl_impo.o ../mbl_kill.o ../mbl_lc.o ../mbl_list.o ../mbl_log.o ../mbl_menu.o ../mbl_opt.o ../mbl_prn.o ../mbl_read.o ../mbl_rev.o ../mbl_stat.o ../mbl_sys.o ../mbl_user.o ../mblutil.o ../md5c.o ../modem.o ../nomenc.o ../nouvfwd.o ../pac_crc.o ../pacsat.o ../qraloc.o ../redist.o ../rx25.o ../serv.o ../serveur.o ../statis.o ../themes.o ../tnc.o ../tncio.o ../trait.o ../trajec.o ../trajovl.o ../variable.o ../warning.o ../watchdog.o ../waveplay.o ../wp.o ../wp_mess.o ../wpserv.o ../xfwd.o ../xmodem.o ../yapp.o xfbbabtd.o xfbbcnsl.o xfbbedtm.o xfbbedtu.o xfbblcnx.o xfbbmain.o xfbbpndd.o xeditor.o -L/usr/lib -lm -lax25 -L/usr/X11R6/lib -L/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/lib -lXm -lXt -lXpm -lXext -lX11
/usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lXpm
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
make: *** [xfbb] Error 1
[root@server X11]#

At that point it looked to me that something was missing within the installation of LessTif/Motif but I don't have any idea about what might be wrong. If somebody has some ideas, it may help, so please do not hesitate to contact me via email: skoric at eunet dot rs

Interestingly, I faced to the very same symptoms earlier when tried to compile the GUI front-end of fbbsrc.704j where all I managed to have was the following:

cd /usr/src/fbbsrc.704j/src/X11
[root@localhost X11]# make
gcc -Wall -Wstrict-prototypes -O2 -g -funsigned-char  -D__LINUX__ -DPROTOTYPES -I../../include -I/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/include -I/usr/X11R6/include  -I/usr/include/netax25 -o xfbb xfbb.o ../arbre.o ../autobin.o ../balise.o ../bidexms.o ../conf.o ../console.o ../date.o ../devio.o ../dos_1.o ../dos_dir.o ../driver.o ../drv_aea.o ../drv_ded.o ../drv_hst.o ../drv_kam.o ../drv_mod.o ../drv_pop.o ../drv_sock.o ../drv_tcp.o ../edit.o ../ems.o ../error.o ../exec_pg.o ../fbb_conf.o ../fortify.o ../forward.o ../fwdovl1.o ../fwdovl2.o ../fwdovl3.o ../fwdovl4.o ../fwdovl5.o ../fwdovl6.o ../fwdovl7.o ../fwdutil.o ../gesfic.o ../ibm.o ../info.o ../init.o ../init_srv.o ../init_tnc.o ../initfwd.o ../initport.o ../k_tasks.o ../kernel.o ../lzhuf.o ../maint_fw.o ../mbl_edit.o ../mbl_expo.o ../mbl_impo.o ../mbl_kill.o ../mbl_lc.o ../mbl_list.o ../mbl_log.o ../mbl_menu.o ../mbl_opt.o ../mbl_prn.o ../mbl_read.o ../mbl_rev.o ../mbl_stat.o ../mbl_sys.o ../mbl_user.o ../mblutil.o ../md5c.o ../modem.o ../nomenc.o ../nouvfwd.o ../pac_crc.o ../pacsat.o ../qraloc.o ../redist.o ../rx25.o ../serv.o ../serveur.o ../statis.o ../themes.o ../tnc.o ../tncio.o ../trait.o ../trajec.o ../trajovl.o ../variable.o ../warning.o ../watchdog.o ../waveplay.o ../wp.o ../wp_mess.o ../wpserv.o ../xfwd.o ../xmodem.o ../yapp.o xfbbabtd.o xfbbcnsl.o xfbbedtm.o xfbbedtu.o xfbblcnx.o xfbbmain.o xfbbpndd.o xeditor.o -L/usr/lib -lm -lax25 -L/usr/X11R6/lib -L/usr/X11R6/LessTif/Motif2.0/lib -lXm -lXt -lXpm -lXext -lX11
/usr/bin/ld: cannot find -lXpm
collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
make: *** [xfbb] Error 1
[root@localhost X11]#

Then too I got no clues what was caused the errors close to the end of the sequence above and I would really appreciate if somebody would be kind enough to give me some pointers. Actually, all 'make' tries just haven't produced either xfbbX or xfbbX_cl files (or I happened not to find them elsewhere?). The only idea I've got was just to try executing (i.e. mouse clicking on) the original xfbbX shell script (dated 09/07/03) which resulted in opening XFBB's main GUI window, asking for callsign, pasword etc. I am not so sure if things should have gone that way, because as explained in earlier installations, I managed to compile xfbbX and xfbbX_cl files, move them to /usr/sbin and activate from there.

After some Internet searching for ideas, I got an email from VK5KMG:

"Hi there Misko, it might be more of a help if you included your complete operating system,ie: computer,processor and so on. As to the ax25 stuff you will need libax25-0.0.11 ax25-apps-0.0.6 ax25-tools-0.0.8. You should be able to get rpm's of these.

Th original compile error was in regard to the updated ax25stuff wnerein you will have to edit the necessary files to reflect the use of the later versions,,,,,alternatively if you are using a 2.2 kernel ( though the later updated stuff works quite ok on the earlier kernels) you would need the ax25-utils package, then FBB would compile up ok using the earlier stuff.

To get the X stuff compiled you will have to go into the relative dir in src and compile the files in there and install manually."

I have also downloaded the following versions of AX25 packages from the Net:

libax25-0.0.11-1.i386.rpm ax25-apps-0.0.6-178.i586.rpm ax25-tools-0.0.8-324.i586.rpm

Although all three complained for bad file signatures or like, I managed to install all of them. What followed a repeated 'make' command, was the same failed output. For your information, I tried to tweak appropriate Makefile file before doing make in fbb/source/X11 directory, for several times now, but nothing helped.

According to earlier 'symptoms' of that type of an error, I was suspicious that I have forgotten to install some parts of developing software - related to graphical environment. In order to check what actually was installed per default (Mandrake 9.1 distribution), I did the following test:

[root@localhost src]# rpm -qa *lesst*
[root@localhost src]#

It was obvious that some of the X Window development parts of lestiff routines were missing here. I started Mandrake 9.1 Control Center's RpmDrake, searching there for possible lestiff-related packages and found three of them. After having them installed, I performed another test:

[root@localhost src]# rpm -qa *lesst*
[root@localhost src]#

Then it seemed that I finally got all four parts of lestiff, but regardless of that I was not able to compile the xfbbX client.

I would appreciate if someone has new pointers to solve this issue.

10. How to access the "xfbbd" server from a DOS client?

Notice: In some of the previous chapters, I announced my plans to use an old i286/12 MHz box, having only 1 MB of RAM, running DOS 5.0, as a 'telnet client' computer. That box has a network card so I would like to 'connect' to the BBS from that one 'telnet client' box. If that succeeds, it would be a good preparation for installing another LinFBB (in the local school club), where several old 286 computers will be also available. It would be nice to offer more than one student-amateur the opportunity to 'connect' the BBS simultaneously, using a bunch of vintage 'telnet client' DOS computers.

10.1 NCSA Telbin DOS client


First of all, I have been looking for networking software that does not require much of hardware resources. Several hams keep advising me to try this or that way, but Jose, CO2JA, sent me his distribution copy of NCSA Telnet utility. According to its own howto document, that is actually a "NCSA Telbin DOS client", being "used at The University of Port Elizabeth (Sep '94)". So far about software's earlier "official" usage.

Well, it seems that NCSA TCP/IP kernel only runs on packet drivers now. That's why I looked for appropriate packet drivers for my old ISA network card, equipped with the UMC's UM9003AF chip. CZ20000.COM packet driver seemed to be the most suitable one.

Before implementing the driver I also needed the proper diagnostic utility to check and/or modify NIC's IRQ and I/O address in order to avoid possible hardware conflicts (you know, under DOS it is less easier to resolve interrupt hardware conflicts case a user has several ISA cards that are not of P'n'P type /as PCI cards are/). It seemed that DIAG.EXE ("The Ethernet Adapter Diagnostic Program, Ver. 2.13" - that comes with E1000 and E2000 series Ethernet cards) was fully capable to handle my card's parameters, so I choose the values of IRQ 5 and I/O 320 that weren't occupied by other resources.

Then I could execute the following DOS command:

     cz2000 0x60 5 0x320

in order to activate the NIC.

Now the configuration file CONFIG.TEL should be modified in order to satisfy my particular needs, including local (DOS client) and remote (Linux server) IP addresses etc. In a couple of minutes that was finished so the main executable TELBIN.EXE successfully started running on my old 286 DOS box.

If you want, you may put cz2000 0x60 5 0x320 and telbin commands into a dedicated TELNET.BAT file in order to make your telnet utility easier to activate. Should you plan to use your old DOS box for only accessing the Linux FBB server, both lines may be added to the AUTOEXEC.BAT start up file.

10.2 Xrouter 176b


A "YL" (the amateur "young lady") from the UK, Paula Dowie G8PZT, has suggested me to try her own product, XROUTER MULTI-PROTOCOL ROUTER, that is "an AX25 and IP packet router for the amateur packet radio network, using a standard PC and DOS". Actually, it seems that Xrouter has much more functions that I need now, but anyway it was intriguing to test its features, in order to connect LinFBB via LAN. Paula said that "Xrouter http://pzt.org.uk/software/software.htm will run on a 286 DOS machine, and will act as a telnet client". She added that, Xrouter's "outgoing text is composed in a one line buffer, so the receive window is only 22 lines".

According to Paula's email signature, seems she's very active in helping to the amateur digital radio activities:

> Packet:   G8PZT @ GB7PZT.#24.GBR.EU  ( [Kidderminster]
> Email:    g8pzt@blueyonder.co.uk                                   _/\_
> GB7PZT:   01562-745527 24h 300-33,600 8,n,1                        ()
> Software: XServ BBS, Xrouter, PEARL off-line-reader.                />
> Web Site: www.pzt.org.uk   (also www.qsl.net/g8pzt)          ===>--->>\----
> Telnet:   (BBS): gb7pzt.dyndns.org:88  and
> Telnet:   (KIDDER): g8pzt.ath.cx and
> HTTP:     http://g8pzt.ath.cx/ and

So, I went to visit the site to see what it was about and to download the package. There were two compressed files, rout172.zip and rout176c.zip so I decided to get both of them (the latter is the newer one, 28/7/02 but the other one is also not so old, 15/11/01).

According to sysop's manual XROUTER.TXT the ethernet driver allows connection with Windows, Linux, NOS and BPQ. At the moment I am primarily interested in connections to LinFBB (and maybe to WinFBB too). Xrouter's hardware requirements include at least one COM port or Ethernet card and I used only the Ethernet card for the first time because I am not going to use Xrouter for anything else but for accessing LinFBB over my home network.

As described in the previous section, related to "NCSA Telbin DOS client", I have managed to activate my NIC using the command:

     cz2000 0x60 5 0x320

After doing that, there was a requirement to use the software component ETHDRV.EXE (supplied with Xrouter), like this:

     ethdrv 125

where "125" stands for a software interrupt in the range 60 - 127 (125 is used as an example that, BTW, works here without any problem). On the other side, the same software interrupt must be defined as the INTNUM parameter, that is a part of the INTERFACE block within XROUTER.CFG configuration file.

And, finally, there was a command:


to activate the main executable. As mentioned before, all three lines above may be incorporated into an XROUTER.BAT (or whatever similar) batch file to make user's life easier.

Well, although in my case the first two lines responded in positive manner, the last one rather suggested that I had some errors in the configuration. The nice thing is that errors are reported with a detail such the exact line of XROUTER.CFG where an error is made. In fact, Xrouter is able to support lots of various "ports" and has a plenty of other features, so it was not easy to solve the config issues I faced to. With some help from other hams I managed to adapt the following configuring blocks:



    ID=Ethernet LAN

So far, so good. Now I got Xrouter's main screen from where I could enter telnet and other commands. But I was still not able to connect to the LinFBB. Finally, I got the suggestion to reconfigure another Xrouter's system file, IPROUTE.SYS. It seemed that the missing part was to change the default route, as follows:

route default 6 * d

Then I became capable to access my LinFBB server.

10.3 JNOS 1.11f


Similarly to Xrouter, JNOS is much more than a simple 'telnet client' for DOS machines. And yes, its telnet ability is fine so I use it to make casual connections to my LinFBB server without problems.

On the other side, I always wanted to offer a 24/7 mailbox service to the radio amateurs in my area. Having in mind that the computer the LinFBB server runs on is everything but a brand new machine, and if it failured I would stay without my primary working computer, I started thinking to use the old 80286 box as a full-time mailbox. In fact, JNOS might be one of the best solutions for that:

     - It provides complete mailbox operations for incoming users,
     - It supports low-end computers, like my 80286 with 1MB RAM,
     - It supports mail forwarding with LinFBB servers, including
       forwarding over Ethernet,
     - etc.


Here it is a diagram of my planned ham radio systems:

     __________________________                _____________________________
     |80286 CPU, 12MHz, 1MB RAM|              |P II CPU, 400MHz, 224 MB     |
     |MS DOS 5.0               |              |Linux Mdk 9.1 / Win2000Pro   |
     |JNOS 1.11f for DOS       |              |LinFBB 7.04j / WinFBB16 7.00i|
     |configured AXIP tunnel   |-- Ethernet --|BPQ32 with AXIP tunnel       |
     |TNC2 in KISS mode        |   10 mbps    |tel. modem port 33k6         |
     |2m VHF radio             |    (LAN)     |dial-up to the Internet      |
     |network card             |              |network card                 |
     ---------------------------              -------------------------------

The idea was to use the 286 box as a 24/7 amateur radio mailbox. The local users would connect to the mailbox using their VHF stations. While logged, they are offered to read bulletins that have been supplied by the LinFBB machine. In addition, users can sent replies to the bulletins' authors as well as to write other personal emails. JNOS is planned to run 24/7 which means its services would be available regardless the LinFBB computer is active or not.

Having in mind that LinFBB is just one of the applications I use when working with the P II computer, and the fact that I don't have enough resources to finance some better equipment, I found it as rational to use LinFBB only when really needed - including forwarding purposes. That means, the local packeteers would have no problem if the P II computer is off while I am at work or something. The 286 box is going to provide all mailbox services.

When I return home from work and switch the LinFBB server on in order to exchange the content of its mailbox with remote BBS stations using 'telnet forwarding' via the Internet, it would establish another 'telnet forwarding'session - this time with JNOS mailbox added. Of course, in that case I would need to keep my dial-up connection to the Internet alive as long as the content of the LinFBB mailbox is exchanged with remote servers. The telnet sessions within the home LAN (Ethernet) can take as much time as needed and during those sessions LinFBB and JNOS mailboxes would exchange both bulletins ('SB' messages) and personal stuff ('SP' messages).


I have already had a version of JNOS which was dated somewhere in mid-nineties. First of all, I searched the web in order to learn how things changed during the last decade and, as a result, I discovered that the last version of JNOS 'family 1.xx' was 1.11f - for which I have even found the installer package. So I downloaded and installed it - though I was not sure which options were activated ("defined" in the JNOS jargon) and which were not ("undefined").

According the instructions, I ensured that my network card's driver was started before any part of the JNOS program itself. It is important because at the early stages of JNOS booting process, the JNOS ports are configured, including the port which uses the network card. So, I managed to set up two ports:

     - A port that provides radio access using TNC2 in KISS mode,
     - A port that provides telnet access using the network card.

The first tests of the equipment proved that both radio and telnet outlets were working, but nothing was considered as finished until the JNOS system was capable to exchange the content of its mailbox with the LinFBB server. Having in mind that the LinFBB server's telnet port has been in use for a long time now, I just set up another forwarding 'partner' that was JNOS. The same I did at the JNOS side, though it was a tricky business because I was used to configure FBB systems and haven't handle any JNOS system since the early nineties. So far - so good.

Unfortunately I faced to the issues I heard of for several times: Telnet is not the best option to make a forwarding between FBB and JNOS. In fact, there is no complete technical description of that behavior available, but what happens is that both FBB or JNOS somehow do not understand what the other party 'wants to say'. To be precise, during the so called handshaking part of the session, both systems have to exchange their 'flags' which are [JNOS-1.11f-BFHIM$] in JNOS and [FBB-7.04j-ABFHM$] in FBB. Whatever happens during that telnet session, often the result is a broken link.

After making several tests without much success, I had to subscribe to a couple of mailing lists and asked for help. The majority of hams suggested to use an AXIP connection instead of telnet. Frankly speaking, I heard of the AXIP and AXUDP connections long ago, but I haven't learned much of them because I did not need them at the time. In short, AXIP (or AXUDP) are used to 'encapsulate' the usual radio traffic of the AX.25 type into the internet-like TCP/IP packets. When you have such encapsulated packets of data, it is easy to transfer them using the wired links - including the Internet or the Ethernet in my case. More details on how to configure AXIP (or AXUDP) you can find in another document: AX.25 howto.

The good thing is that Linux has a 'native' support for the amateur radio networking, which means you do not have to install some "node" or "switch" software that is used as an interface between LinFBB server computer and other amateur radio mailbox systems (more details about the specific setup in my case will follow in the next versions of this document). The good thing at the JNOS side is that it also does not need a "node" or "switch" software that runs bellow the JNOS software itself. That means both LinFBB and JNOS system operators ('sysops' in the ham terminology) are required just to activate and configure native AXIP or AXUDP features of their mailbox systems. In opposite to that, WinFBB (FBB for Windows) sysops have to install additional "node" or "switch" packages, called BPQ or others.

After some fine tuning and additional 'tweaking' the LinFBB and JNOS systems, I am capable to exchange the amateur radio messages between the two mailboxes. Of course, the experimentation is far from over, because there are several minor issues to work on. Stay tuned ...

10.4 Improving the home LAN connections


As mentioned earlier, I had an old NIC of ISA type equipped with UMC's UM9003AF chip in the DOS computer. On the Linux/Windows side I also used an ISA card which was activated with either module 'ne' in Linux, and was recognized as 'NE2000 compatible' in Windows 2000. For some unknown reason the card was not recognized by Windows XP at all. A friendly ham Paul, N6RME, wanted to donate his spare card of PCI type, equipped with 3Com's 3C905 chip. I decided to move 'NE2000 compatible' ISA card from Linux to DOS machine because I expected not to have problems with its DOS drivers. Besides that, that NIC also had a UTP connector - just like the 'new' 3Com's card, sent by Paul, which meant I could replace the old coax cable with a UTP (FTP) one. So I did.

With the new card at the Linux/Windows side, I started with configuration. W2k recognized the NIC as 3Com Ethernet Link XL 10/100 PCI NIC (3C905-TX) at I/O address of E400 and IRQ 7, while XP recognized it as 3Com 3C905TX at the same address of E400 but IRQ 5. Linux Mandrake 9.1 has found it as 3c905 100BaseTX [Boomerang]. At the first moment I wanted to continue with using the module 'ne' but obviously it was not possible and I got an error message when re-booted Linux. Then I tried to tweak the I/O and IRQ's in Linux with using 'netconf' tool but always got an error. I have also tried to change a value within the computer's BIOS from 'Legacy ISA' to 'PCI/ISA PnP' because the new card is PCI and accordingly not likely to work with settings for earlier ISA card. It did not help, until I replaced the module 'ne' with module '3c59x'. It seems to run fine for now, though it makes me wonder if there might be a more proper "3c90x" module to play with.

To be honest, I haven't improved the link between the two so much (if any) - it still runs as a 10 Mbps link because of the slower 'NE2000 compatible' card at the DOS side. But, with upgrading the cables to a newer standard I increased the chances for further options: To include those two computers in some more complex home LAN, using a hub or a switch.

11. How to communicate with LinFBB in Serbian?


Gentle folks, I am a Serb and I live in Serbia. My language is Serbian and I communicate with FBB in that language. If you like to expand the language capabilities of your LinFBB (and-or WinFBB too), I include two system language files: SRPSKI.HLP and SRPSKI.TXT for your convenience. As you can see, the files are in the Latin alphabet although I would like to have them in the Cyrillic too. Case some of you have ideas or links on how to manage that, you are welcome to help.



# SRPSKI.HLP for FBB 7.00g   #
#    (Serbian help file)     #
# by Misko,YT7MPB   02Jul99  #

# -1 za goste   #

@@ -1 ?

Imate ograniceni izbor naredbi:

B  : bye-diskonekt
H  : ovaj tekst
KM : brise sve PROCITANE poruke za vas
LM : ispis naslova SVIH poruka za vas
O  : izbor opcija (jezik,stranice..)
RM : cita sve poruke za vas
RN : cita sve NOVE poruke za vas
S  : upucuje poruku (SEND)
T  : poziva SysOp-a

# 0 je za SERVER  #

@@ 0 ?

*** nema takve naredbe !!!

C : statistika konektovanja
D : dokumentacija i informacije
Q : QTH lokatori
N : adresar stanica (CALLBOOK)
T : sateliti i njihove putanje
F : povratak u BBS mod
B : diskonekt iz bbs-a

Upisite: ? <slovo> za detaljniju pomoc  (na pr.. ? T )

@@ 0 C

Razne statistike o upotrebi servera, liste i slicno.

@@ 0 D


U ovom delu mozete pronaci razne informacije i dokumentaciju ako postoje.
Naredbe su brojcane.

@@ 0 N


Ovde se nalaze informacije koje su korisnici bbs-a ostavili o sebi.
(ime, adresa, telefoni, ...).

Mozete upisati i svoje podatke ....(preporucujemo).

@@ 0 Q

Razni proracuni vezani uz lokator (iz koordinata u LOC, iz LOC u koordinate,
QRB, sumirajuci QRB vise lokatora, azimuti...).

@@ 0 T

Putanje satelita
Proracun putanja, orbitalnih parametara, karakteristike raznih satelita
(ukoliko za njih postoje podaci).

@@ 0 F

Povratak u BBS

Naredbom: F <enter> se mozete vratiti nazad u BBS mod.

@@ 0 B

Bye - diskonekt

Naredbom: B <enter> prekidate QSO sa bbs-om.

# QRA-locator server is 2 #

@@ 2 ?

*** nema takve naredbe !!!

Q : proracun koordinata iz lokatora,
L : proracun lokatora iz koordinata,
D : proracun QRB i azimuta izmedju dva lokatora,
C : sabiranje QRB izmedju pocetnog LOC i vise drugih lokatora,
F : povratak u server meni,
B : diskonekt iz bbs-a.

Ukucajte: ? <slovo> za detaljniju pomoc (na pr.. ? L).

@@ 2 Q

naredba Q

Izracunava koordinate iz lokatora. Rezultat je u stepenima/min. i gradima.
Gradijani nam bas i nisu zanimljivi pa zavisno od jezika se nece ni ispisati.

@@ 2 L

naredba L

Izracunava lokator iz koordinata. Koordinate se mogu uneti u decimalnim 
stepenima, stepen./min. i gradijanima.

Primer unosa u stepenima i minutima:   1:45:00 (smer)

Ovaj smer zamenite sa Sever, Jug, Istok, Zapad prema potrebi. Pazite da
prvo slovo bude VELIKO, na pr.. 1:45:00 Sever

@@ 2 D

naredba D

Izracunava QRB i azimut izmedju dva lokatora. QRB je u km, azimut u stepenima.

@@ 2 C

naredba C

Sabira izracunate QRB. Nakon unosa polaznog LOC svi sledeci QRB se nakon 
proracuna dodaju ukupnoj sumi km.

Ako nemate digitron ili racunar mozete ovde izracunati rezultate contesta :))

@@ 2 F

naredba F

Vraca vas nazad u SERVER mod pa mozete probati neki drugi modul servera.
Ako ponovo posaljete F <enter> vracate se u BBS mod.

@@ 2 B

naredba B

Prekidate vezu bez vracanja u BBS mod.


@@ 3 ?

*** nema takve naredbe !!!

O : zauzeca na bbs-u u %,
G : opsta statistika bbs-a,
L : spisak konektovanih stanica,
H : graficki prikaz dnevne upotrebe bbs-a,
J : graficki prikaz nedeljne upotrebe bbs-a,
I : spisak svih stanica koje su do sada bile u bbs-u,
F : povratak u SERVER-MENI,
B : diskonekt iz bbs-a,

Ukucajte: ? <slovo> za detalje o nekoj naredbi ( na pr..  ? L).

@@ 3 O

naredba O

Procenat upotrebe raznih resursa servera, mailbox-a i DOS modula.

@@ 3 G

naredba G

Opsta statistika servera (broj poruka, konekta, vremena...)

@@ 3 L

naredba L

Konekt lista. Za  svaki  konekt  ispisuje  se: port, znak, pocetak i vreme
trajanja konekta. Lista se daje unazad, a ispis se prekida sa A.

@@ 3 H

naredba H

H       : graficki prikaz upotrebe BBS-a po satima od 00 - 24h,
H CALL  : graficki prikaz upotrebe BBS-a od strane CALL. Moguci su i "dzoker"-
          znaci.Na pr. H YU7* ce dati ispis za sve YU7 stanice koje su bile tu.

@@ 3 J

naredba J

J       : graficki prikaz upotrebe BBS-a po danima u sedmici od Pon do Ned,
J CALL  : graficki prikaz upotrebe BBS-a od strane CALL. Moguci su i "dzoker"-
          znaci.Na pr. J YU7* ce dati ispis za sve YU7 stanice koje su bile tu.

@@ 3 I

naredba I

I        : abecedni spisak stanica koje su koristile BBS. Moguci su i 
           "dzoker"-znaci.Na pr. I YU7* ce dati listu svih YU7 stanica.

@@ 3 F

naredba F

Vraca vas nazad u SERVER-MENI pa mozete da probate neki drugi modul servera.
Ako ponovo posaljete: F <enter> vracate se u BBS mod.

@@ 3 B

Bye - diskonekt

Naredbom: B <enter> prekidate vezu, bez potrebe da se vracate u BBS mod.


@@ 4 ?


Da bi procitali neki tekst sa liste samo upisite njegov broj.
Nove stvari se upisuju putem NEWDOC servera iz BBS-a (? NEWDOC).

L ispisuje listu fajlova.

Sysop: OPIS se moze menjati D naredbom ( na pr.. D BBS.DOC opis).

@@ 4 F

naredba F

Vracate se nazad u SERVER-MENI pa mozete probati neki drugi modul servera.
Ako ponovo posaljete: F <enter> vracate se u BBS-mod.

@@ 4 D

naredba D (samo za SysOp-a)

Izmena opisa dokumentacionih fajlova.

@@ 4 L

naredba L

Daje spisak postojecih tekstova.

@@ 4 R

naredba R

Ako ste otisli u neki od DOCS poddirektorijuma sa R se vracate na raniji DIR.


@@ 5 ?

*** nema takve naredbe !!!

N : promena licnih podataka: imena, adrese...,
R : pretrazuje bazu za podacima o nekoj stanici,
I : lista konektovanih znakova,
F : povratak u server meni,
B : diskonekt iz bbs-a.

Ukucajte: ? <slovo> za detalje o naredbi (na pr..  ? N ).

@@ 5 N

naredba N

Ako nema podataka o vasem imenu, adresi, tlf ili su netacni, mozete ih 
uneti ili menjati ovom naredbom.

Ukoliko na pitanje odgovorite sa razmakom ili <RETURN> nece se promeniti
taj podatak.

Ukoliko je sve OK, samo odgovorite slovom N na (D/N) pitanje.

SysOp : sysop moze menjati podatke korisnika naredbom N CALL.

@@ 5 R

naredba R

Pretrazuje bazu podataka u potrazi za podacima o nekom pozivnom znaku.
Na pr. R YU7APV <enter>.

@@ 5 I

naredba I

Abecedni popis stanica koje su do sada konektovale ovaj BBS.

@@ 5 F

naredba F

Vraca vas nazad u SERVER-MENI pa mozete probati neki drugi modul servera.
Ako ponovo posaljete: F <enter> vracate se u BBS.

@@ 5 B

Bye - diskonekt

Naredbom: B <enter> prekidate vezu, bez potrebe da se vracate u BBS mod.


@@ 6 ?

*** nema takve naredbe !!!

T : izracunava putanju/polozaj nekog satelita,
P : prikazuje orbitalne parametre,
C : karakteristike amaterskih satelita,
F : povratak u server meni,
B : diskonekt iz bbs-a.

Posle naredbi C, P i T mozete da upisete L za SPISAK satelita.

Ukucajte ? <slovo> za detalje o nekoj naredbi ( na pr..  ? C ).

@@ 6 T

naredba T

Izracunava putanju satelita. Nakon sto ste odabrali satelit za koji zelite 
proracun morate uneti datum i vreme za koje zelite podatke. Svi podaci su
bazirani na vasem lokatoru ukoliko ste ga upisali inace se racuna prema 
lokatoru ovog bbs-a.

Za popis satelita upisite L <enter>.

@@ 6 P

naredba P

Ispisuje orbitalne parametre satelita koji se koriste u proracunima.

Za popis satelita upisite L <enter>.

@@ 6 C

naredba C

Daje karakteristike i informacije o izabranom satelitu.

Za popis satelita upisite L <enter>.

@@ 6 F

naredba F

Vraca vas nazad u SERVER-MENI pa mozete probati neki drugi modul servera.
Ako ponovo posaljete: F <enter> vracate se u BBS-mod.

@@ 6 B

Bye - diskonekt

Naredbom: B <enter> prekidate vezu bez potrebe da se vracate u BBS-mod.

# 9 is DosFBB #

@@ 9 ?

Moguce naredbe u DosFBB delu su:

? i HELP     : ovaj tekst,
O            : opcije (stranice po liniji, bazni broj...),
BGET         : Autobin download,
BPUT         : Autobin upload,
DIR          : ispis sadrzaja direktorijuma (LIST je daleko bolja)
DU           : disk usage - spisak DOS dir's sa pojedinacnim zauzecem,
EDIT         : editovanje fajla,
GET          : download (ispis) tekst fajla,
PUT          : upload (upis) tekst fajla,
CD           : promena direktorijuma,
COPY         : kopiranje fajla,
DEL          : brisanje fajla,
MD           : napravi direktorijum,
RD           : obrisi prazan direktorijum,
XGET         : XMODEM download (tel. modem),
XPUT         : XMODEM upload (tel. modem),
X1GET        : 1k-XMODEM download (tel. modem),
YGET         : YAPP download (ili YMODEM via tel. modem),
YPUT         : YAPP upload,
ZGET         : ZMODEM download (tel. modem),
TYPE         : ispis ASCII fajla sa paginacijom,
LIST         : ispis fajlova sa kratkim opisom ako postoji,
PRIV         : odlazak u posebni, privatni direktorijum,
VIEW         : pogled u sadrzaj arhiviranih fajlova (ARJ, ZIP, LZH, ARC),
WHERE file   : pretraga po disku za fajlovima,
NEW          : ispis novih fajlova od zadnje primene NEW,
EXIT,F i QUIT: povratak u BBS-mod,
B            : diskonekt iz bbs-a.

Diskove mozete menjati kao i u DOS sa A:,C:,D: (ukoliko postoji vise diskova)

Za detalje ukucajte ? <naredba>    (na pr..  ? WHERE).

@@ 9 HELP

naredba HELP

Ispisuje spisak svih raspolozivih naredbi u DosFBB delu.

@@ 9 B

Bye - diskonekt

Naredbom B <enter> prekidate vezu bez potrebe da se vracate u BBS-mod.

@@ 9 CD

naredba CD

Koristi se za promenu direktorijuma, na pr.. CD \YAPP. Za "natrag" jedan dir
koristite naredbu: CD <enter>.

@@ 9 COPY

naredba COPY

Sluzi za kopiranje fajlova. (na pr..  COPY TEST.TXT TEST2.TXT)

Kopiranje preko vec postojeceg fajla nije dozvoljeno (greska).

@@ 9 DEL

naredba DEL

Sluzi za brisanje fajlova. Mozete obrisati SAMO fajlove koje ste vi poslali.

@@ 9 DIR

naredba DIR

DIR prikazuje sadrzaj direktorijum,a bilo onog u kojem ste sada bilo drugog 
ako unesete punu putanju ("path") na pr. DIR \YAPP.

"Dzokeri" su dozvoljeni, na pr.. DIR *.SYS

@@ 9 DU

naredba DU

DU (Disk Usage) ispisuje zauzet/slobodni prostor na disku.

@@ 9 EDIT

naredba EDIT

Sluzi za editovanje (ispravku) tekst fajlova. Nakon njene primene ulazi se
u poseban editor sa malom grupom posebnih naredbi, sto je previse pa ne bi
dalje o ovome ....


naredbe EXIT,QUIT i F

Sve znace isto: izlaz iz DosFBB nazad u BBS-mod.

@@ 9 GET

naredba GET

Ovo upotrebite ako zelite da preuzmete/procitate neki TEKST fajl sa BBS-a.
Ispis je kontinuiran. Na pr. GET PHONE.BBS.

Pazite, neki fajlovi nisu tekstualni i ova naredba nije za njih. Tacnije,
dobijate cudne znakove na ekranu ako probate GET sa NE-tekstualnim fajlovima.

@@ 9 LIST

naredba LIST

Daje spisak fajlova (kao i DIR), ali uz njih ispise i kratki opis ukoliko


naredba MD ili MKDIR

Pravi novi direktorijum unutar onoga u kojem se koristi. Na pr MD TEST.
Nema svrhe da se ovo proba, osim uz dobro objasnjenje SysOp-u (hi)...

@@ 9 NEW

naredba NEW
Vrlo zgodno jer vam daje spisak SVIH NOVIH fajlova u SVIM direktorijumima od
kako ste poslednji put dali NEW. Koristite je kad udjete u DOS, lakse je nego
DIR "okolo-naokolo".

@@ 9 O|OL|ON|OR|OP|

naredba O

Daje dosta raznih stvari:

O <enter> ispisuje stanje ovoga ispod za vas slucaj,

OP     - iskljucuje ispis po stranicama,
OP br. - ukljucuje ispis po stranicama sa <br.> brojem linija po strani,
OL     - spisak mogucih jezika za koriscenje u bbs-u,
OL br. - prelazak na jezik <br.>,
ON     - ispis osnovnog (pocetnog) broja za listanje poruka,
ON br. - upis novog osnovnog (pocetnog) broja <br.>.
         To je broj koji se sabira sa onim sto upisete kod rada sa porukama.
         Kako je nezgodno kucati R 20002 postavite ON 20 (isto kao i ON 20000)
         i posle kucate samo R 2, a BBS vam cita poruku 20002 (20000 + 2, ok?)
OR     - uklj/isklj citanje licnih poruka za druge korisnike,
OM     - uklj/isklj mogucnost auto-listanja novih licnih poruka kod konekta.

@@ 9 PUT

naredba PUT

Sluzi za upis nekog vaseg tekst fajla u BBS. Ukoliko vec postoji isto ime,
stari fajl se prvo mora obrisati (naravno, samo ako je to bio vas fajl).

Na pr. PUT INFO.C64 snima u bbs fajl pod imenom INFO.C64

@@ 9 PRIV

naredba PRIV

PRIV naredba daje pristup u posebni direktorijum, samo vas ili jos neciji.
To moze u dogovoru sa SysOp-om, ako ima mesta na hard disku.

Takav DIR moze da postavi samo SysOp.


naredba RD ili RMDIR

Brise prazan direktorijum koji ste vi napravili.

@@ 9 TYPE

naredba TYPE

Daje ispis tekst fajla po STRANICAMA ukoliko tako zelite (vidi OP naredbu).

@@ 9 VIEW

naredba VIEW

naredbom VIEW moze se "pogledati" sta sadrzi neki arhivirani fajl.
To su svi fajlovi sa: .ARJ .ZIP .LZH .ARC nastavcima.
Primer: VIEW SP


SAMO ukoliko BBS ima i telefonski modem-port i ako ste preko njega
konektovani. One sa GET su za skidanje , a sa PUT za upis fajlova i to:

XGET  - XModem
X1GET - XModem-1k
ZGET  - ZModem
YGET  - YModem

Upotreba je ista : naredba <ime_fajla>

VAZNO: na BBS-u moze biti postavljen dozvoljeni dnevni limit u kb za preuzimanje.



Koriste se za skidanje/slanje binarnih fajlova putem radio veze.

YGET i YPUT za YAPP protokol (YAPP, TPK, PTM..)
BPUT i BGET za Autobin protokol (SP, GP, Turbopacket..)
YGET preko modema za YModem protokol

Upotreba je ista : naredba <ime_fajla>

VAZNO: na BBS-u moze biti postavljen dozvoljeni dnevni limit u kb za skidanje.

Napomena: NE koristite YAPP ako nemate program sa "yapp resume" mod-om !!!

# BBS-mode is 14 #

@@ 14 A|ABORT

(A)bort tj... prekid ispisa iz BBS-a.

OK, ako ste poceli da citate nesto pogresno, ali uzmite u obzir sva kasnjenja
kroz mrezu dok "A" ne stigne do BBS i prekine ispis....

@@ 14 B

B naredba vas diskonektuje iz BBS-a (uz jos neke podatke).

Bitno je da samo tako izlazite iz BBS-a, a ne diskonektom jer ce vam samo tako
ostati podesene nove vrednosti za naredbu L ("List").

Ukoliko se veza prekine tako necete izgubiti poslednje stanje.

@@ 14 C|CW

CW naredba ispisuje stanice u konferenciji.

C  naredba vas ubacuje u konferenciju tj... "bla-bla" okrugli sto u kojem sve
   sto pisete ide svima koji su takodje trenutno u konferenciji na bbs-u.

U konferenciji sve naredbe pocinju sa tackom u prvoj koloni !!!

.C[port] call [via digi1 digi2...] konektuje stanicu na portu,
.H vam daje ovaj tekst,
.W ispisuje prisutne stanice u konferenciji,
.Q vraca vas iz konferencije nazad u BBS-mod.

@@ 14 CB

   Pomocu naredbe CB CALL dobicete adresu za trazeni znak iz callbook-a
   sa CD ROM-a (kad ga budemo ugradili, hi), na pr.: CB YU7APV

@@ 14 D|DOS

Naredba ima dvostruko znacenje:

1. Samo D bez argumenata vas prebacuje iz BBS u DOS mod. Tu mozete kao i na PC
   slati/skidati fajlove, kopirati, citati.....
   Paznja: DOS deo ima svoje, drukcije naredbe. Napravite HELP kada udjes u 
   njega !

2. D uz argument vam daje download nekog tekst fajla. Na pr D \yaesu\ft-411.mod 
   i BBS ce vam poslati fajl FT-411.MOD iz  YAESU direktorijuma. U vezi ovog 
   pogledajte i pomoc za W naredbu (?W).

VAZNO: samo programi koji imaju uobicajene ekstenzije tipa: .TXT, .DOC, .INF    
       se mogu normalno procitati. Svi ostali se moraju preneti posebnim
       nacinom (vidi pomoc za YAPP prenos).

@@ 14 F

F naredba vam daje pristup serveru i dodatnim mogucnostima.
Server koristi sistem menija gde ulazite prvo u glavni meni.
Za objasnjenja koristite uvek samo: ? <enter>.

@@ 14 G

G naredba daje pristup Gateway-u. Upotrebljivo tek kod BBS-ova sa
vise portova na razlicitim frekvencijama.

@@ 14 ?|H|HELP

Spisak mogucih naredbi ili GRUPE naredbi (vise njih sa istim PRVIM slovom).

A :(abort) - prekida ispisivanje necega,
B :(bye)   - diskonekt,
C :(conference) - ulaz u konferenciju (bla-bla vise stanica),
CB: Trazenje adrese ARS sa CD ROM-a (ako je ugradjen CD citac),
D :(DOS)   - ulaz u FbbDOS ili download fajla,
F :(FBB)   - ulaz u server (adresar, sateliti, lokatori...),
G :(gateway) - pristup drugim frekvencijama BBS-a (ako postoje),
H :(pomoc) - tekst za pomoc kad vam zatreba,
I :(info)  - info o sistemu ili grupa naredbi White Page servera,
J :(jheard)- spisak nekoliko poslednjih konektovanih/slusanih stanica,
K :(kill)  - brisanje poruka,
L :(list)  - listanje poruka,
M :(make)  - kopira poruku/bilten u fajl,
N :(name)  - menja vase ime,
NH:        - upisuje BBS na koji ce ici poruke za vas (MYBBS, HomeBBS...)
NZ:        - upisuje postanski broj vaseg QTH,
NQ:        - upisuje vas grad ili mesto,
NL:        - upisuje vas QTH lokator,
O :(option)- odabir opcija (stranice, jezika.....),
PS:        - spisak prisutnih servera (nije isto sto i "server mod"),
PG:        - pokretanje ili popis posebnih DOS programa,
R :(read)  - cita poruke,
S :(send)  - salje poruke,
T :(talk)  - zove SysOp-a,
TH:(themes)- pristup tematskoj podeli biltena (novo u FBB 7),
V :(verbose)- cita poruke sa kompletnim putanjama ili verzija BBS-a,
W :(what)  - spisak fajlova u DOS delu,
WP:        - White Page server, pomoc detaljnije sa:   ? WP,
X :(expert)- menja status korisnika: normal ili expert,
Y :(yapp)  - protokol za prenos binarnih (najcesce programskih) fajlova,
Z :(delete)- brise fajl,
> :(text)  - salje kratki tekst nekom drugom korisniku (sada) u BBS-u,
= :(conn.) - konektuje vas sa nekim drugim korisnikom (sada) u BBS-u,
! :(info)  - kratki info o bbs-u,

Opsirniju pomoc za sve naredbe dobijate ukoliko otkucate: ? <naredba>.

Na pr: ? c   ? f   ? y    .....

@@ 14 I|INFO

I         daje INFO fajl o ovom BBS-u (ukoliko postoji informacija).

WhitePages server naredbe:

I CALL    daje podatke o stanici, preuzete iz WP servera,
ID        broj zapisa u WP bazi podataka,
I@ BBS    daje listu korisnika nekog BBS-a (I@ YU7A),
IH ruta   daje poznate korisnike sa zadatom hijerarhijskom rutom (IH YUG),
IZ ZIP    daje korisnike sa zadatim postanskim brojem (IZ 21000).

U vecini WP naredbi dozvoljeni su "dzoker" znakovi.

@@ 14 J|JA|JB|J1|J2|JK

JK daje spisak poslednjih 20 konektovanih stanica,
JA daje spisak poslednjih 20 konektovanih stanica na portu A (JB - port B),
J1 daje spisak poslednjih 20 slusanih stanica na portu A (J2 - port B),
JK CALL daje spisak nekoliko poslednjih konekta stanice CALL,

@@ 14 K|KILL|KM|KK

K  broj1 broj2 .. brise poruke koje ste poslali ili primili. Mozete obrisati
   i ono sto niste procitali od licnih poruka.
KM naredba brise SVE poruke za vas koje ste procitali. Ovo NECE obrisati one
   koje niste procitali.


L  lista sve NOVE pristigle poruke/biltene od poslednje primene L naredbe,
LB lista biltene,
LD> GGMMDD lista sve poruke pristigle posle datuma GGMMDD,
LD< GGMMDD lista sve poruke pristigle pre datuma GGMMDD,
LM lista poruke upucene licno vama,
LN lista poruke upucene licno vama koje jos niste procitali,
LL 10 lista poslednjih 10 poruka,
LS <text>  pretrazuje NASLOVE poruka u potrazi za textom <text>,
L< CALL lista poruke koje je poslao CALL,
L> CALL lista poruke za CALL,
L@ lista lokalne biltene bez @ BBS polja,     
L@ CALL  lista  @CALL poruke,
L 220- lista samo poruke od 220 pa navise,
L 220-230 lista poruke izmedju 220 i 230,
LU lista sve neprocitane poruke koje ste poslali/primili,
LR lista poruke UNAZAD od najstarije prelistane prema najnovijoj u bbs-u,
LC posebno listanje po vasem uslovu. Prvo zadate uslov na pr.. LC DX i od tada ce
   sve gornje naredbe za listanje (osim LM i LN) listati SAMO poruke poslate
   za DX. Ako stavite "dzoker" na pr.. LC *DX* onda ce listati sve poruke koje u
   polju "Za" imaju slova DX (VHFDX, DXHF, DXCC...). Za povratak u "obicno"
   listanje ukucajte LC *

   Da dobijete spisak mogucih LC polja ukucajte:   LC ?


M  <por.br.> <ime> : kopira poruku <br.> u fajl <ime>, 
MH <por.br.> <ime> : isto, ali kao kod citanja u formatu R naredbe,
MV <por.br.> <ime> : isto, ali kao kod citanja u formatu V naredbe,

Napomena: sve ove naredbe ce PREPISATI preko starog fajla (ako postoji).

Naredbe: MA, MHA i MVA imaju istu upotrebu, ali nece prepisati stari fajl 
nego ce DODATI novi tekst na kraj starog fajla.

@@ 14 N|NAME

Naredbom N mozete upisati ili promeniti svoje ime (do 12 znakova max.).
Na pr.  N Haralampije

Pogledajte jos i: NP, NL, NQ, NZ, NH naredbe.


Ovom naredbom upisite svoj maticni ("home") BBS na koji vam dolaze poruke.
Na pr. NH YU7A
Sve licne poruke za vas, koje kasnije stignu, bice upucene na BBS koji ste 
naredbom NH odredili.

@@ 14 NP

Za promenu lozinke kod porta za telefonski modem.

@@ 14 NQ

Naredbom NQ upisite svoj QTH (grad ili mesto).

@@ 14 NL

Naredbom NL mozete upisati svoj QTH lokator, sto je vazno za razne proracune 
u server modu.

@@ 14 NZ

Naredbom NZ upisite svoj postanski broj. Na pr. NZ 21000

@@ 14 O|OP|OR|OL|ON|OM

Naredba O ispisuje vase licne parametre u ovom BBS i to:

- jezik koji koristite,
- da li je ispis po stranicama i sa koliko linija (pre pitanja: Dalje?),
- bazni broj za poruke,
- zelite li da vidite i tudje licne poruke ili ne (ako sistem dozvoljava),
- zelite li spisak novih poruka za vas odmah po ulasku u BBS.

OL sluzi za izbor jezika na kojem ce BBS komunicirati sa vama.
Otkucajte OL za spisak mogucih jezika, a onda ponovite sa odabranim jezikom.

Na pr. OL 4 za promenu u jezik broj 4 sa spiska mogucih jezika.

OP sluzi sa formatiranje stranica listanja/citanja.
Podesava nakon koliko linija ce BBS prekinuti ispis i cekati vasu odluku
da: prekinete, idete dalje i slicno. Upisite na pr.. OP 20 za 20 linija pre 
pitanja za dalji rad.

Ukoliko ukucate samo OP bez broja, dobijate stalni ispis bez prekidanja.

ON podesava tzv. osnovni (pocetni) broj kod citanja poruka.
Kako ovaj tip BBS-a poruke i biltene razlikuje samo po njihovom broju, koji 
stalno raste sa dolaskom novih poruka, ubrzo postane malo nezgodno kucati 
na pr.. R 20050 20056 itd. Zato naredbom ON 20000 podesite "bazu" na 20000 i 
dalje radite kao da nema tih 20000 tj... od tada kucate: R 50 56 itd. Inace,
naredbe: ON 20 i ON 20000 su ista stvar.

Naredbom OR mozete odabrati da li zelite da citate/listate licne poruke 
ostalih korisnika bbs-a. Ako je ukljuceno, moze biti nezgodno ako vam stigne 
ispis, recimo 200 komadica nekog fajla koji vas ne zanima.

Naredbom OM, prilikom svakog konekta u bbs, prvo dobijate spisak NOVIH 
poruka za vas a zatim uobicajeni bbs prompt.

@@ 14 PG

Naredba PG startuje usluzne programe iz posebnog direktorijuma. PG <enter> 
daje samo spisak tih malih programa. Pokretanje nekog od programa sa spiska: 
PG <ime_programa_bez_ekstenzije> <parametar_programa_ako_treba> <ENTER>

@@ 14 PS

Naredba PS daje spisak ugradjenih "servera" u ovom BBS-u. Ti serveri nisu 
isto sto i tzv. server-mod samog BBS-a. To su posebni programi koji po nalogu 
korisnika odrade razne stvari automatski. Sa serverom se komunicira kao i sa 
nekim amaterom - slanjem "licne" poruka tom serveru.

Na pr. REQDIR server ce vam spremiti sadrzaj direktorija koji zelite i u vidu
licne poruke za vas uputiti na vas maticni BBS.


Naredba: SP REQDIR <enter>
Naslov:  \yapp\*.* @ YU1A <enter>
Tekst:   Ostavite prazno, na kraju: CTRL-Z <enter>

ce vam poslati licnu poruku na bbs YU1A, u kojoj je sadrzaj YAPP 
direktorijuma ovog BBS.

@@ 14 R|RM|RN|RU|R>|R<

R <broj>  cita poruku <broj>,
R <broj1> <broj2> itd   cita poruke po navedenim brojevima,
RM cita SVE poruke za vas - i one vec procitane (ne zaboravite na brisanje),
RN cita sve NOVE poruke za vas (samo NEprocitane),
RU cita sve poruke za vas koje jos niste procitali,
R< <poz_znak>  cita sve poruke koje su poslate od strane stanice <poz_znak>,
R> <tekst>  cita sve poruke za pozivni znak ili temu <tekst>.

@@ 14 S|SB|SR|SC|SP

Naredba S se koristi za slanje licnih poruka i biltena:

S SVIMA          za otvorenu poruku samo na ovom BBS (ne ide dalje),
SB PRODAM @YU    za otvoreni bilten na sve BBS u Jugoslaviji sa temom prodaje,
SP YT7MPB@YU7A   za licnu poruku YT7MPB koja treba da ode/ostane u bbs-u YU7A,
SR <broj>        salje odgovor na poruku <broj>. BBS ce sam da doda sve ostalo 
                 u vezi adrese primaoca, kao i "Re:" u naslovu.
SC <broj> <CALL> kopira poruku <broj> za <CALL>. Na pr. dvojici primalaca ide 
                 isti tekst. Pre CTRL-Z mozete dopisati neki komentar, a 
                 kopija poruke <broj> se sama dopise posle tog komentara.

To je moguce u svim varijacijama (@EU, @YUG, @WW, @YU7 itd.).

@@ 14 T

Naredba T trazi od BBS-a da pozove SysOp-a na razgovor. Nema nikakvog 
argumenta, samo T <enter>. Ukoliko SysOp nije prisutan ili se ne javi 
na poziv u roku od 1 minuta, dobijate informaciju da mu ostavite poruku.

@@ 14 TH

Izlistava poruke slozene po temama, ranije podesenim u BBS-u.

Na pr. sve poruke, poslate za OS2, DOS, NT4 i sl. mogu da budu u temi OPSISTEMI.

Moguce naredbe su:

H (list themes) - popis tema u bbs-u,
L (list)        - listanje poruka o izabranoj temi,
R msg# (read)   - procitaj poruku broj <msg#> u izabranoj temi,
broj            - idi na teme <broj>.

@@ 14 U

Naredbom U mozete da posaljete neki tekst fajl u BBS. Sintaksa je kao
i kod MS-DOS. Pogledajte i pomoc za D i W naredbe (? D ? W).

@@ 14 V

Naredba V daje kratku informaciju o porukama, verziji BBS programa itd.

Takodje moze da radi i kao naredba R za citanje poruka. Tada prikazuje 
zaglavlja sa putanjama i usputnim bbs-ovima, pa pravi daleko veci ispis.

@@ 14 W

Naredba W je nesto kao DIR ili CAT naredba. Dobijate spisak svih fajlova
i direktorijuma koji su na raspolaganju korisnicima. Vaze sva MS DOS
pravila. Primeri:

W \IBM\*.*

@@ 14 WP

WP je interni server BBS-a. To je velika baza podataka o korisnicima stvorena 
bilo direktnim upisom podataka od strane samih korisnika, bilo analizom svih
zaglavlja koja prate svaki bilten/poruku. WP sadrzi podatke o pozivnom znaku,
imenu korisnika, postanskom broju i "home"-BBS-u sa H-adresom.

Ukoliko je WP aktivan, mozete bilo kome poslati licnu poruku iako ne znate 
koji je njegov "home"-BBS. Ukoliko server ima tu informaciju, sam ce je 
dodati, ako je (ponekad) nema - trazice od vas da adresu sami unesete.

Sa bilo kojeg BBS-a, mozete WP serveru poslati pitanje o nekom korisniku:

Naredba: SP WP @BBS  (@BBS zamenite sa znakom BBS-a sa kojeg zelite odgovor),
Naslov:  unesite neki tekst (nebitno, napr. Info)
Tekst:   YU1A ?      (napr. trazite info o YU1A)
/EX ili CTRL-Z

Takodje je dozvoljeno koristiti i dzokere pa mozete traziti info za 
na pr. sve stanice sa prefiksom YT:

YT* ?

Napomena: da bi se smanjio QRM, odgovor ce imati maksimalno 100 redova, bez
obzira koliko ima pravih informacija.

U vezi sa ovim, pogledajte i pomoc za I naredbe (? I).

@@ 14 X

Naredba X prebacuje vas korisnicki status iz "normal" u "expert" i obrnuto.

Status "normal" daje kompletniji i opsirniji odgovor od BBS-a, 
Status "expert" daje kratki i sazetiji odgovor od BBS-a.       


Sve naredbe koje pocinju slovom Y rade binarni transfer fajlova pomocu tzv.
YAPP protokola.

YW       lista direktorijum programa,
YN       lista "novitete" od poslednje upotrebe naredbe YN,
YU fajl  ubacuje - snima fajl u BBS,
YD fajl  salje vam - "skida" file iz BBS-a,
YI       kao i YW, samo dobijate i kratki opis programa,
YI fajl  daje kratku informaciju o fajlu (ako je upisana kod unosa fajla),
YZ fajl  brise fajl.

YAPP mogu koristiti samo vlasnici racunara sa programom koji sadrze i
taj protokol. Na pr za PC :YAPP, THS, TPK, modifikovani SP, s tim da bi trebalo
upotrebiti prg koji podrzava tzv. RESUME mod. To znaci da kad se veza prekine, 
dodjete opet i nastavite tamo gde ste stali. Takvi su prg: TPK, ZACC, PTM,

YAPP se takodje moze upotrebiti iz FbbDOS-a, ali su onda druge naredbe.

@@ 14 Z

Naredba Z brise fajl iz BBS mod-a.

@@ 14 >

Znak > omogucuje da nekom drugom ko je takodje prisutan u BBS-u, posaljete 
kratku poruku (jedan red). Nesto kao "Break" u fonijskoj vezi. Primer:
> YT7MPB Hi OC ! Pozovi me kad zavrsis !

Napomena: pre naredbe > pogledajte koga jos ima u BBS-u naredbom !

@@ 14 =

Znak = daje mogucnost da stupite (kroz BBS) u direktnu vezu s nekim ko je 
takodje u BBS-u. Ako nije zauzet necim dobijate odgovor *** Connected to ... 
a obe strane mogu prekinuti takvu vezu sa CTRL-Z i vratiti se u BBS-mod.


Pre toga naredbom ! pogledajte da li je YT7MPB trenutno u bbs-u.

@@ 14 !

Naredba ! daje spisak stanica u BBS i jos poneke informacije o sistemu.

# GATEWAY is 16 #

@@ 16 H|B|K|C|D|J|M|P

Gateway naredbe:

B : bye -diskonekt za drugog, a vas vraca nazad u BBS,
K : converse mod,
C : konekt,
D : diskonekt,
H : pomoc,
J : spisak poslednjih 20 slusanih stanica,
P : direktni skok s porta na port. P1 - idi na port1 (port je sam TNC),
M : monitor on/off,
W : W <fajl> otvara "capture" file, samo W <enter> ga zatvara.

Prvo odaberete port. Ukoliko nije zauzet, bice vam dodeljen i preuzece vas 
znak. Kad nekog konektujete, ulazite u "converse" mod (kao i primenom K 
naredbe). Povratak u "command" mod je ESC ili:  >  <enter>.

@@ 18 C

C  naredba: ulazite u konferenciju,
CW naredba: ispisuje stanice koje su u konferenciji.

Napomena: sve naredbe u konferenciji pocinju tackom u prvoj koloni!

.C<port> <call>   konektuje stanicu <call> na portu <port>,
.H                daje vam ovaj tekst,
.W                ispisuje spisak stanica u konferenciji,
.Q                izlazite iz konferencije.



# SRPSKI.TXT for FBB 7.00i   #
#    (Serbian text file)     #
# by Misko,YT7MPB   07Jul03  #
# 255 karaktera max.po liniji.
# ----------------------------
# Ne menjajte broj i raspored linija!
# Ime jezika - What language is this ?
OL: Izabrali ste Srpski jezik.$W
# Definicija odgovora Da i Ne
# Dani i meseci
# Strane sveta (za QTH-lokator server)
#T_MES: Dobrodoslica
# za BBS:
$O Mailbox, QTH $?.$W
# za expert:
$O BBS, $c.$WZdravo $I! (prethodni QSO je bio: $x $Y)$WNove poruke su: $Z - $L, aktivnih ima $N.$W
# normal user
$O BBS, QTH $c $?.$WZdravo $I, nalazite se na kanalu $=.$WQSO $d $H (prethodni QSO je bio: $x $Y)$WU BBS-u ima $N aktivnih poruka,$W$Z je poslednja koju ste listali, $L je poslednja stigla u BBS.$WFilter za listanje poruka (LC) je: $l (* = sve).$W
# Upis podataka
Upisite sa N svoje ime (na pr.. N Petar)        : $W
Upisite sa NQ svoj grad (na pr.. NQ Novi Sad)   : $W
Upisite sa NH najblizi BBS (na pr.. NH YU7A)    : $W
Upisite sa NZ postanski broj (na pr.. NZ 21000) : $W
# za goste:
Zdravo $I, na raspolaganju vam je ogranicen izbor naredbi.$W
# tekst za onog ko uleti na 'BBS only' port:
Ovaj kanal je samo za BBS stanice!  //q $W
#  prvi put u BBS-u:
Pozdrav za prvi konekt ovom BBS-u!$WOdgovorite na pitanja, snimite HELP i prijatna vam zabava!$W
# poruke za vas:
Niste procitali nove poruke za vas: $0 kom.$W
# procitane, neobrisane poruke:
Naredbom KM obrisite $0 kom. licnih poruka koje ste procitali.$W
# bye-bye:
U BBS-u ste boravili: $: - CPU vreme: $.$W73! $I, dodjite opet...$W
# odgovor na "!"
BBS i server F6FBB tipa, ver. $E - $* aktivnih kanala.$W$%$W$N aktivnih poruka - poslednja poruka $L.$WOvaj konekt traje: $: PC vreme: $.$W
# neka standardna pitanja i poruke
ENTER = nastavak, A = prekid, C = bez prekidanja, N = sledeca poruka -->
Promeniti  (D/N) ?
Hvala  $I.$W
$WPrekid !!$W$W
Napraviti  (D/N) ?$W
$WVas izbor (L za listu, F za kraj) :
ENTER = nastavak, A = prekid, R broj = procitaj broj ->
# poruke o greskama...
*** Greska  $I: Netacan odgovor.$W
*** Greska  $I: Pogresna naredba $0.$W
*** Greska  $I: Zaboravili ste razmak posle naredbe !$W
*** Greska  $I: Samo su brojevi dozvoljeni !$W
*** Greska  $I: Nedostaje tekst posle poz.znaka.$W
*** Zalim   $I, nema pomoci za $0.$W
*** Greska  $I: Nedostaje znak primaoca.$W
*** Greska  $I: Nedostaje znak.$W
*** Greska  $I: Nepoznat fajl.$W
*** Greska  $I: Znak $0 nije dozvoljen ovde.$W
*** Greska  $I: Ne postoji poruka broj %M.$W
*** Greska  $I: Ime fajla $f ne postoji.$W
*** Greska  $I: Ne mozete obrisati poruku %M (ili je vec obrisana)$W
*** Greska  $I: Broj %M ne postoji.$W
*** Greska  $I: Pogresan port.$W
*** Greska  $I: Upotrebite CD naredbu.$W
*** Greska  $I: Polje $0 je predugo.$W
*** Greska  $I: Adresa za $0 je pogresna.$W
*** Zao mi je $I, danas ste vec snimili %dkb. $W
*** Greska  $I: Nema nista !$W
*** Greska  $I: Nedostaje ime fajla.$W
*** Greska  $I: Kako se zove odredisni fajl?$W
*** Greska  $I: Ne govorim taj jezik, a sumnjam da postoji takav!$W
*** Greska  $I: Ne diraj ono sto nisi poslao! (na $f mislim)$W
*** Greska  $I: Nepoznat direktorijum $0 (ili nije prazan).$W
*** Greska  $I: Nema takvog direktorijuma$W
*** Greska  $I: Nemoguce je napraviti direktorijum $0.$W
*** Greska  $I: A gde vam je "path" ?$W
*** Greska  $I: "Path" predug.$W
*** Greska  $I: Taj "path" ne postoji !$W
*** Greska  $I: Nemoguce kreirati fajl $f.$W
*** Vreme isteklo !!!$W
# Tekstovi za pojedine celine
# BBS prompt:
# expert prompt:
($*) $O BBS >$W
# gost prompt:
($*) $O BBS (B,H,KM,LM,O,RM,SP SYSOP,T,?) >$W
# normal prompt:
($*) $O BBS (B,C,D,F,G,H,I,J,K,L,M,N,O,PS,PG,R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z,?) >$W
# ostale poruke:
Nema takve poruke (filter za listanje je (LC): $l).$W
Nema novih poruka za vas.$W
Naslov poruke za %G (max. 30 slova):$W
Tekst poruke, zavrsite sa Ctrl-Z ili /EX u novom redu : $W
Poruka %M je obrisana.$W
# odgovor na V naredbu:
Program F6FBB v.$E, $N aktivnih poruka, poslednja poruka je $L.$W
# ostale poruke
Upisite svoje ime :$W
Ime je upisano  kao $I... Hvala. $W
# Novo u 5.15c5: Slovo I
# Novo u 7.0b20: Slovo F
Call      Zadnji conn #ukup RPBSXLFEMUI Ime          Password     PRIV-dir.$W
$V nije prisutan, mozete da mu ostavite poruku (SP SYSOP).$W
Pricekajte malo dok pozovem SysOp-a .....$W
$V nije u blizini. Pozovite ga ponovo (T) ili mu ostavite poruku (SP SYSOP).$W
$V je na vezi:$W
Molim vas pricekajte, SysOp bi da razgovara s vama.$W
Ekspertni mod. Otkucajte: X <enter> za povratak u Normal mod.$W
Normalni mod. Otkucajte: X <enter> za povratak u Ekspert mod.$W
Server mod. Otkucajte: F <enter> za povratak u BBS mod.$W
Datoteka $f je kopirana.$W
Poruka za $G je ponistena (nije bilo naslova).$W
OP: kontinuirani ispis.$W
OP: $p linija po stranici (pre pitanja za nastavak).$W
Korisnik je konektovan, editovanje nije moguce.$W
$0 $1 $2 $3 $j $K = $4'$5
ON: osnovni broj za poruke : $0 (dodaje se broju koji unesete).$W
(B)id, (F)rom, (V)ia=@BBS, (T)o, T(I)ttle, (S)tatus, T(Y)pe, (Cr)End >$W
R,P,B,S,X,L,E,M,U $W(N)ame,pass(W)ord,lan(G)uage,pri(V)-dir,(H)omeBBS (Z)ip-code >$W
Znak $0 je nepoznat. Da ga kreiram (D/N) ?
Obrisati $0 (D/N) ?
Moguci jezici su:$W
$W--- Kraj poruke $M  za  $G od $P  ---$W$W
Poruka $0$WW
# zaglavlje kod citanja poruka:
Poruka od   : $P$WZa          : $G$0$WTip/Status  : $t$s$WDatum/vreme : %j %K$WBid/Mid     : $R$WDuzina      : $n$W
# zaglavlje kod listanja poruka:
Vas filter za listanje (LC) je: $l$W$WPor#   TSLD  Duz  Za    @ BBS   Od       Datum      Tema   $W
# sadrzaj svake  linije kod listanja poruka:
$M $t$s$r%r $n $G$0 $P %i $1$W
Naslov      : $S$W$W(Do sada vec procitana %C puta u ovom BBS-u)$W$W
Bid (Mid) : $R$W
Poslata prema:
$0 ruta prema $v$W
# prompt za fwd
# poruke tokom fwd
NO - pogresan parametar$W
*** Done$W
Poruka #%M  Duz : $n$W
Nemam forward prema $A, SysOp ce to da sredi.$W
Upisite odgovor za $G @ $v$W
# New texts for 5.14
OR: Pristup svim licnim porukama$W
OM: Ispis novih licnih poruka za vas po ulasku u BBS : $0$W
Upisite pozivni znak BBS-a na koji zelite da vam se salju poruke:$W
Upisite svoj postanski broj :$W
HomeBBS : $0$W     Post.br : $1$W
# umesto ovog dole mozda ubaciti "Upozorenje ! Nema WP-rute prema $G$W
Nema WP-rute prema %G. Pritisnite ENTER za prekid i ponovo adresirajte.$W
Trenutno ima $0 zadrzanih poruka$W
(A)rchive,(K)ill,(L)ocall,(Q)uit,(R)ead,(V)erbose,(U)nhold ?
# Traitement
# Line added from 515c45
Poruka je prihvacena i zadrzana na uvid SysOp-u pre razmene.$W
*** Zauzet(o), molim pricekajte...$W
*** Zauzet(o), nema konekta trenutno....$W
*** $0 nije konektovan..$W
$W$B*** Connected to $0 kroz BBS (prekid sa Ctrl-Z).$W
*** Disconnected$W
*** Trenutna poruka  ("break") od $0 *** (odgovor sa:  > $0 tekst...)$W
*** Kraj poruke ("break") ***$W
Mali prekid za poruku od $0.$W
Zahtev "Stop" je zatrazen od $0. Code : $1$W
Zahtev "Stop" je prihvacen, nema konekta.$W
Zahtev "Reset" je prihvacen, inicijalizujem.....$W
ENTER=nastavi  A=prekid -->$W
Zahtev za prekid je odbijen.$W
BBS mod. Otkucajte: F <enter> za povratak u server mod.$W
# server meni
$WSERVER (B,C,D,F,N,Q,T,?=pomoc) >$W
$W(C) Connect-statistika$W(D) Dokumenti, informacije$W(N) Callbook$W(Q) QTH-LOC$W(T) Sateliti$W(F) Povratak u BBS$W(B) Disconn.$W$W Za pomoc otkucaj ? slovo$WSERVER-MENI (C,D,N,Q,T,F,B  ?=pomoc) >$W
# statistika
$WSTATISTIKA (G,H,I,J,L,O,F,B ?=pomoc) >$W
$W(G) Ukupno$W(H) Zauzece po satima$W(I) Poz. znaci$W(J) Zauzece po danima$W(L) Detaljna conn. lista$W(O) Zauzece u % $W(F) Povratak u SERVER-MENI$W(B) Disconn.$W$W Za pomoc otkucaj ? slovo$W$WCONN-STAT (G,H,I,J,L,O,F,B  ?=pomoc) >$W
Zauzece po danima$W
Zauzece po satima$W
0 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 2  Sati$W
0 2 4 6 8 0 2 4 6 8 0 2$W
$N Aktivnih poruka$W
Konekta od $j: $0$W
Konekti$W  Prosecno trajanje   : $0min $1s$W
  Pros. conn. dnevno   : $0$W
  Najveca guzva        : u $0 i $1 sati$W
Zauzece u % $W
  BBS                  : $0 % $W
  SERVER               : $0 % $W
SERVER detaljnije:$W
  DOS                  : $0 % $W
  QTH lokatori         : $0 % $W
  Dokumentacije        : $0 % $W
  Conn. statistika     : $0 % $W
  Callbook             : $0 % $W
  Sateliti             : $0 % $W
$0 $1 $2 $3 $j $K = $4'$5"$W
# callbook deo
$WCALLBOOK (I,N,R,F,B  ?=pomoc) >
$W(I) Spisak svih znakova$W(N) Promena ili upis tvojih podataka$W(R) Citanje podataka drugih$W(F) Povratak u SERVER-MENI$W(B) Disconn.$W$WZa pomoc ukucaj ? slovo$W$WCALLBOOK (I,N,R,F,B  ?=pomoc) >$W
$WPoz.znak: $0$W
$WPrethodni conn. $j u $K$W
Ime i prezime: $1 $0$WAdresa       : $2,$3$WQTH LOC      : $4. $WTlf,kucni    : $5 $WTlf,posao    : $6$WHome-BBS     : $7$W
Prezime          :$W
Ulica i broj     :$W
Grad/mesto       :$W
Telefon u stanu  :$W
Telefon na poslu :$W
QTH LOC          :$W
$WUkupno: $0 poz.znakova$W
*** Znak $0 nepoznat.$W
*** Neispravan QTH LOC !$W
# sateliti
$WSATELITI (C,P,T,F,B  ?=pomoc) >
$W(M) Promene parametara$W
$W(C) Karakteristike$W(P) Orbitalni parametri$W(T) Orbite$W(F) Povratak u SERVER-MENI$W(B) Disconn.$W$WZa pomoc ukucaj ? slovo$W$WSATELITI (C,P,T,F,B  ?=pomoc) >
$WLokator : $0    Satelit $1$W
| Time  | Az. | El. | Dpl. | Dist. | Alti. | Lon | Lat | Ph. |$W
|  UTC  | Deg | Deg | KHz  |  Km   |  Km   | Deg | Deg | 256 |$W
--------------- $j-$a ------ Orbite #$0 ---------------$W
| $0:$1 | $2 | $3 | $4 | $5 | $6 | $7 | $8 | $9 |$W
Unesite datum za proracun (dd/mm/gg) :
Unesite vreme za proracun  (HH:MM)   :
$WMolim pricekajte...$W
$WNemam informacija za taj satelit.$W
Izmene od $j-$y.$W
Ime satelita        :
Referentna orbita   :
Referentna godina   :
Referentni dan      :
Mean anomaly        :
Arg. of perigee     :
R.A.A.N.            :
Inclination         :
Eccentricity        :
Mean motion         :
Derived mean motion :
Estimated step      :
Doppler frequency   :
$WOrbitalni parametri za $0$W
Broj orbite         : $0$W
Epoch year          : $0$W
Epoch day           : $0$W
Mean anomaly        : $0$W
Arg. of perigee     : $0$W
R.A.A.N.            : $0$W
Inclination         : $0$W
Eccentricity        : $0$W
Mean motion         : $0$W
Derived mean motion : $0$W
Estimated step      : $0$W$W
($0) $1
(F) Kraj$W
# qth lokatori
$WQTH-LOKATOR (C,D,L,Q,F,B  ?=pomoc) >
$W(Q) QTH -> duz.i sir.$W(L) duz.i sir. -> QTH$W(D) QRB i azimut$W(C) QRB sabirnica$W(F) Povratak u SERVER-MENI$W(B) Disconn.$W$WZa pomoc ukucaj ? slovo$W$WQTH-LOC (C,D,L,Q,F,B,  ?=pomoc) >
$WQTH Lokator :
Koordinate u centru polja :$W
Duzina : $0 step. $1' $2 : $3 grad. $2$W
Sirina : $0 step. $1' $2 : $3 grad. $2$W
$WRadni format$WU stepenima    : 1 : 45 : 00 (smer).U gradijanima   : 1.5 (smer)$W(smer) zamenite sa Sever, Jug, Istok, Zapad.$W
$WDuzina (Istok/Zapad)  (F,Q=kraj) :
$WSirina   (Sever/Jug)  (F,Q=kraj) :
$WQTH Lokator   (F,Q=kraj) : $0$W
$WOd QTH LOC    (F,Q=kraj) :
$WDo QTH LOC    (F,Q=kraj) :
Azimut    : $0 step. $1'$W
Udaljenost: $0 Km$W
$WVas QTH Lokator (F,Q=kraj) :
$WDo QTH LOC ?    (F,Q=kraj) :
Proracun br. $0 - Ukupna udaljenost: $1 Km$W
Kraj proracuna.$W
# Modul DOS
Direktorijum $0 obrisan.$W
Fajl ne postoji.$W
$0 $1 $2 $3   $4 $5 $6 $7$W
Prekinut upis $f.$W
Fajl $f je snimljen ($0 bytes).$W
Unesite fajl $f (kraj = Ctrl Z).$W
$0 bytes kopirano.$W
$W$j $T  FBBDOS V$E$W$WPomoc u FBBDOS-u dobijate sa: H <enter>.$W$WDownload u toku danasnjeg dana = %dkb$WDozvoljeno je max = %mkb$W
$WMoguce naredbe su:$W
Fajl $f obrisan.$W
$0 bytes slobodno.$W
# Modul dokumentacija
$WDOC (#,R,B,F  H=pomoc) : >
$W(D) Label
$W(L) Lista$W(broj) Cita doc. broj$W(R) Nazad na prethodni nivo$W(B)  Disconn.$W(F) Povratak u SERVER-MENI$W$WZa pomoc ukucaj ? slovo$W$WDOC (#,L,R,B,F H=pomoc) >
Ne postoji !!
#  gateway
Sada ste na kanalu $=, port $!. $g dostupnih portova.$WH = pomoc. Q = Bye.$W
Broj porta (Q = Bye) :
Kanal $0 dodeljen na $1.$W
Nema slobodnih kanala na tom portu.$W
Cmd :
Konvers mod. Esc ili > (return) za command mod.$W
*** Greska $I: Vec ste na tom portu!$W
*** Greska $I: Pogresan port.$W
*** Gateway nije dostupan.$W
$O: Pogresna naredba $0. (B,C,D,J,K,H,M,P,?)$W
Saljem $f...$W
Otvoren $f log fajl.$W
Zatvoren $f log fajl.$W
# Modul YAPP
Spreman za slanje $f $0 protokolom.$W
Spreman za prijem $f $0 protokolom.$W
Zalim, $0 nije moguc na ovom portu.$W
Kratak opis fajla (40 znakova max) :
$0 $1 $2 $3   $4$W
Nalazite se u konferenciji (Pomoc= ".?").$W
$H. Stanice u konferenciji :$W
Call: $0, kanal $1.$W
$H $0 ulazi u konferenciju.$W
Izlazite iz konferencije.$W
$H $0 napusta konferenciju.$W
[$H - $0]$W
Nema nikog drugog u konferenciji.$W
$H $0 : Retry count exceeded.$W
$H $0 busy.$W
$H $0 nije u konferenciji!$W
# New in 5.15c5:
# T_THE : Module THEMES.
Poruka   Duz  Za     Od     Naslov     (Tema :%T)$W
$M%r $n $G $P $1$W
%T - %t biltena (B,F,H,L,R,broj) :

In order to add Serbian to your FBB, you have to add/change a couple of lines within your LANGUE.SYS like in the following example:


# File that decides what language each user will use in the first
# connect.  He can change language himself later...
# All prefixes not listed here, will receive language no 1 (English).
# 3 parametres : 
# Number of languages - Number in PC at the time - Console-language.
13 2 1
# 1 : English
# 2 : French
# 3 : Spanish
# 4 : Italian
# 5 : Dutch
# 6 : German
# 7 : Catalan
# 8 : Norwegian
# 9 : Portuguese
# 10: Danish
# 11: Swedish
# 12: Croatian
# 13: Serbian
9A*     12
C3*     7
CT*     9
CU*     9
DU*     1
D*      6
EK*     1
E?3*    7
E?5*    7
E?6*    7
E*      3
F*      2
H*      2
I*      4
LA*     8
ON1A*   5
ON1B*   5
ON1C*   5
ON1K*   2
ON4*    2
ON5*    2
ON6*    2
ON7*    2
ON8*    1
ON9*    1
OZ*     10
PY*     9
P*      5
SK*     11
SM*     11
TU*     2
TK*     2
VE2*    2
YU*     13
YT*     13
YZ*     13
4N*     13
4O*     13
3A*     2
3B*     2

12. How to make better ham radio rules?


Notice: Gentle folks, here I am going to discuss some rules'n'regulations issues that we, radio amateurs, face to every day. These problems make rather significant obstacles for this nice alternative way of communication to be more developed and more widely used.

First of all, anybody who might be interested in running Linux amateur radio software, as a way of using radio amateur stations on the international HF waves, in a digital manner, has to learn manual analog Morse telegraphy and pass the similar manual Morse skill test. For a long time now, I have been trying to explain myself, why manual Morse telegraphy is still being kept as the legal requirement without an amateur is not allowed to use HF radio frequencies under 30 MHz, in order to contact Linux and other remaining digital radio amateurs world-wide. I still have no answer to that question, except that all of those who have wasted lots of time learning Morse, now don't want to allow newcomers to use the same capabilities - but without the same (useless) test!

You all know, there are so many Linux enthusiasts world-wide (including myself) who have been fighting against all types of monopols (like a company from Redmond, USA). The Morse obligatory test is the same: just another type of a monopoly!

That's why I have been trying to persuade all relevant authorities to remove such outdated regulatory principles, that make more and more obstacles for not only Linux users, but for other kinds of computer users - when it comes to the modern ICT technologies. I hope, all of you, readers of this mini-HOWTO, can understand now what does it mean to use outdated rules and regulations endlessly . For example, I often contact various people from the academic world, either students or scientists, in order to motivate them to join amateur radio wireless activities. They mostly refuse to think about the amateur (also called "ham") radio, as soon as they hear they have to pass the Morse test, as the legal requirement before they become allowed to connect to remote computing radio users world-wide, using the HF radio bands and devices.

What I am sure, the absence of those high educated people within the digital ham radio is one of the most negative consequences in the ICT areas today!

I have been thinking what to do since the early ninetees, when I was the secretary of YU7 (Vojvodina province in Serbia) amateur radio union. It seemed to me that it was a very hard task to persuade the people who govern the amateur radio organizations, to remove such outdated rule. When I realized that removing the mandatory manual Morse test seemed to be almost impossible to be expected in a short period of time, I decided to suggest the implementation of another regulatory principle. It should be a major innovation: To make a new type of the amateur radio license, a Ham Digital Licence (the HDL in short). The HDL licensees would be allowed to use all amateur radio frequencies, including all international HF bands under 30 MHz. But, they rather should be allowed to use only digital sub-bands and types of the amateur radio emissions a.k.a. "modes", including the usage of computers, equipped with the LinFBB packet radio software. Besides that, the HDL holders may only use modified and/or dedicated radio transmitters, without the capability for both voice microphone and Morse key connections, in order to avoid possible misuse of unwanted amateur activities (like voice SSB operations).

All HDL candidates should have to learn topics like computer hardware and software in general (operating systems and system software configuration, amateur radio software setup etc), connecting the amateur radio stations to the computers (connecting radio modems to the transmitters etc), building simple antennas (like 1/2 wave wire dipole for 20m that I used long ago), the English language (or German etc) in the written exam etc. The Morse requirement would not be used anymore, as well as some other obsolete tests, like highly complicated radio circuits or skills needed for building home-brew radios from the scratch (instead of buying modern factory manufactured devices). Of course, the regulatory issues should also be tested (like band plans - in particular recognizing the sub-bands dedicated for digital ham radio). Next are RFI issues and how to avoid them etc.

I believe that amateur radio digital activities have their future only if we all do our best to improve the regulatory principles that govern this fine hobby. You should also know that, besides the telegraphy skill requirement for an HF access, here in Serbia we have some further restrictions: we all have to be the members of the national amateur radio unions (SRV union in YU7 province and SRS union in Serbia in whole), as the legal requirement, before we become allowed to use any type of the amateur radio activities. Such a nonsense does not exist elsewhere!

Should you want help us to adopt internationally known principles, that do NOT require to join any type of the amateur radio organizational system, i.e. the amateur radio society (that only wants to get our membership money), you are invited to lobby for us. Our conservative amateur society leadership also has their email address: yu0srj@eunet.yu (I suppose they may have more than one email address, but you may try to use this one). You may also use an Internet search engine and scan for information related to "Savez radio amatera Jugoslavije" and "Savez radio amatera Srbije". Your help would be highly appreciated. Case you need more info regarding our national legal issues, do not hesitate to contact me.

If you find yourself interested enough in making amateur radio rules and regulations better and more updated (say to spread the idea of liberalize the whole ICT areas and make them free of any kind of monopols), I would suggest you to look for your national radio amateur society and/or national telecommunication regulatory agency (like FCC in the USA). Lobby to them in order to remove the obsolete manual Morse proficiency test. In addition, should you have some opportunities to attend to some ICT meetings and conferences or something like that, you are also invited to let me know.

Case we all do our best to remove obstacles mentioned above and allow the new people, who may wish to enjoy the amateur radio digital and Linux-related operations, to do so, the technology would become the part of more homes. I hope you, the readers, may help. So I look forward to hear from you soon!

13. Bibliography


Notice: I often participate in various (inter)national ICT conferences in Serbia and abroad, presenting technical papers and delivering half-day and full-day tutorials, covering basic ideas and useful mission of the amateur radio hobby and its possible usage in engineering education. What I have been doing is to spread - as much as possible - the knowledge about existing open source products, including Linux and amateur radio free software. Besides that, I have been writing various articles for a variety of scientific and other magazines. Here you have the list of those articles and paper topics submitted to the conferences.

In case you want to re-publish or forward my volunteer paper works to some journals or other public media around, you are free to contact me. Some of my papers are written in Serbian Cyrillic, some of them are in English and some of them even combined!

      - "U prilog I.A.C.", MI (the youth scientists' organization
         newspaper), No. 69, 1990.

      - "U prilog I.A.C. (2)", MI (the youth scientists' organization
         newspaper), No. 70, 1990.

      - "Vise od radio-amaterskog hobija", Vojska, No. 163, 1995.

      - "Korak ka zvezdama", Vojska, No. 200, 1996.

      - "Die Gefahr von Innen - Internet gegen Amateurfunk",
         AMSAT-DL Journal, No. 4, Dez./Feb. 96/97.

      - "Kakva nam organizacija (ne) treba?", Radioamater,
         Feb. 1997.

      - "Kakva nam organizacija (ne) treba? (2)", Radioamater,
         Apr./May. 1997.

      - "Sateliti umiru padajuci", Vojska, No. 235, 1997.

      - "The Internet is not the Enemy", QST, Aug. 1998.

      - "Novi radio-amateri za novi vek", Antena, June 2000.

      - "Racunarske komunikacije putem radio-veza i
         zastita pristupa", Bezbednost, No. 3, 2000.

      - "Paket-radio - Racunarske komunikacije putem radio-veza",
         proceedings, "Info-Teh", Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, 2001.

      - "Racunarske komunikacije putem radio-amaterskih veza",
         proceedings, "YU-Info", Kopaonik, Serbia, 2002.

      - "Computer Communications over radio", presentation,
        "Linux FEST", Belgrade, Serbia, 2002.

      - "Paket-radio - Radio-amaterske digitalne veze",
         proceedings, "Kongres JISA", Herceg Novi, Montenegro, 2002.

      - "Paket-radio (2) - Modemi za radio-veze",
         proceedings, "Info-Teh", Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, 2002.

      - "Alternativne racunarske mreze", festival catalog,
        "INFOFEST", Budva, Montenegro, 2002.

      - "Alternative computer networks", proceedings, "TELFOR",
         Belgrade, Serbia, 2002.

      - "With rule and regulation improvements to the progress"
         proceedings, "TELFOR", Belgrade, Serbia, 2002.

      - "Racunarske komunikacije putem radio-amaterskih veza (2)",
         proceedings, "YU-Info", Kopaonik, Serbia, 2003.

      - "Racunarske komunikacije putem radio-amaterskih veza (3)",
         proceedings, "YU-Info", Kopaonik, Serbia, 2003.

      - "Paket-radio (3) - Programske mogucnosti na strani servera",
         proceedings, "Info-Teh", Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, 2003.

      - "Paket-radio (4) - Legal rules and regulations in the amateur
         computer networks", proceedings, "Info-Teh", Vrnjacka Banja, 
         Serbia, 2003.

      - "Packet-radio (2) - With rule and regulation improvements to the progress",
         proceedings, "Kongres JISA", Herceg Novi, Montenegro, 2003.
      - "Alternativne racunarske mreze (2)", festival catalog,
        "INFOFEST", Budva, Montenegro, 2003.

      - "Alternativne racunarske komunikacije putem radio-veza",
         Info M, 6-7/2003.

      - "Legal Rules and Regulations in the Amateur Radio Computer Networks",
         proceedings, "22nd ARRL and TAPR Digital Communications Conference",
         Hartford, CT USA, 2003.

      - "Favoritism", IEEE Potentials, Oct/Nov 2003
      - "Alternative computer networks (2)", proceedings, "TELFOR",
         Belgrade, Serbia, 2003.

      - "With rule and regulation improvements to the progress (2)"
         proceedings, "TELFOR", Belgrade, Serbia, 2003.

      - "XI Telekomunikacioni forum - TELFOR 2003", Info M, 8/2003.

      - "Aktivnosti organizacije IEEE Computer Society - YU Chapter"
        Info M, 8/2003.

      - "Yugoslavia IEEE Student Branch", IEEE Region 8 News,
        Vol. 7 No. 1, Feb/Mar 2004

      - "Radio-amaterske racunarske mreze", tutorial, "Info-Teh",
        Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, 2004.

      - "Radio-amaterske racunarske mreze", tutorial, "Kongres 
        JISA", Herceg Novi, Montenegro, 2004.
      - "The Amateur Radio as a Learning Technology in
        Developing Countries", proceedings, "ICALT/TEDC 2004", 
        Joensuu, Finland, 2004.

      - "The Amateur Radio in Engineering Education", seminar,
        "IEEE-EESTEC Technical Conference 2004", Arcavacata 
        di Rende (Cosenza), Italy, 2004.

      - "The Conference Low-Down", IEEE Potentials, Feb/Mar 2005
      - "ICALT 2004, IEEE Novi Sad SB, Serbia & Montenegro", 
        IEEE Region 8 News, Vol. 8 No. 1, Mar 2005

      - "The Conference Low-Down", IEEE Potentials, Apr/May 2005

      - "The Amateur Radio Networking And Computing", proceedings,
        "PSU-UNS ICEE 2005", Novi Sad, Serbia, 2005

      - "Radio-amaterske racunarske mreze", tutorial, "Info-Teh", 
        Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, 2005 (intro: dr D. Surla, PMF)

      - "Radio-veze", round table session, "Kongres JISA", Herceg 
        Novi, Montenegro, 2005.

      - "The New Amateur Radio University Network - AMUNET",
        proceedings, "9th WSEAS CSCC Multiconference",
        Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, 2005.

      - "The perspectives of the Amateur University Network - 
        AMUNET", WSEAS Transactions on Communications, Vol 4,
        pp 834, Sep. 2005.

      - "Conferences in Serbia and Montenegro", IEEE Region 8 News,
        Vol. 8 No. 3, Sep 2005.

      - "The Conference Low-Down", IEEE Potentials, Dec 2005

      - "Divided We Fall", The Institute, IEEE, Dec 2005

      - "University Networking Through the Amateur Radio Communications",
        plenary lecture, "3rd WSEAS/IASME Int. Conf. on Engineering
        Education", Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, 2006.

      - "The New Amateur Radio University Network - AMUNET (Part 2)",
        proceedings, "10th WSEAS CSCC Multiconference",
        Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, 2006.

      - "University Networking Through the Amateur Radio Communications",
        tutorial, "10th WSEAS CSCC Multiconference",
        Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, 2006.

      - "Education in Peril", The Institute, IEEE, Sep 2006

      - "The Conference Low-Down", IEEE Potentials, Dec 2006

      - "Amateur Radio in Engineering Education", tutorial, "Info-Teh",
        Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, 2007.

      - "Paket-radio (5) - Programske mogucnosti na strani klijenta",
         proceedings, "Info-Teh", Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, 2007.

      - "Summer Schools on the Amateur Radio Computing", proceedings,
        "12th Annual Conference on Innovation & Technology in Computer
         Science Education", ACM ITiCSE 2007, Dundee, Scotland, 2007.

      - "Amateur Radio in Engineering Education", tutorial, "EUROCON",
        Warsaw, Poland, 2007.

      - "Bringing New Life in Old Computers", proceedings, "26th ARRL
        and TAPR Digital Communications Conference", Hartford, CT USA,

      - "The Conference Low-Down", IEEE Potentials, Sep/Oct 2007

      - "My trip to Eurocon - a member's view", IEEE Region 8 News,
        Vol. 10 No. 3, Dec 2007.

      - "Amateur Radio in Engineering Education", tutorial, "Info-Teh",
        Vrnjacka Banja, Serbia, 2008.

      - "Paket-radio (6) - Privatnost podataka i zastita ucesnika u
        radio-amaterskim mrezama", proceedings, "Info-Teh", Vrnjacka
        Banja, Serbia, 2008.

      - "Amateur Radio in Engineering Education",
        tutorial, "5th WSEAS/IASME Int. Conf. on Engineering
        Education", Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2008.

      - "The New Amateur Radio University Network - AMUNET (Part 3)",
        proceedings, "12th WSEAS CSCC Multiconference",
        Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 2008.

      - "Amateur Radio Telecommunications and Networking in Education",
        tutorial, "IARIA ICWMC 2008", Vouliagmeni, Athens, Greece, 2008.

      - "The Conference Low-Down", IEEE Potentials, Sep/Oct 2008

      - "Amateur Radio in Engineering Education", workshop,
        "TELFOR", Belgrade, Serbia, 2008.

      - "Amateur Radio: More than a hobby!", tutorial,
        "IAENG IMECS 2009", Hong Kong, China, 2009.

      - "Wasted Gear", IEEE Computer, Feb 2009

      - "Amateur Radio: More than a hobby!", tutorial,
        "6th WSEAS/IASME Int. Conf. on Engineering Education",
        Rodos, Greece, 2009.

      - "The New Amateur Radio University Network - AMUNET (Part 4)",
        proceedings, "13th WSEAS CSCC Multiconference",
        Rodos, Greece, 2009.

      - "Amateur Radio in Education", book chapter in "Handbook of
        Research on Human Performance and Instructional Technology",
        ISBN: 978-1-60566-782-9, October 2009

      - "Surveillance as a service", IEEE Computer, Dec 2009

      - "Amateur Radio: More than a hobby!", tutorial, IEEE
        "ICACT 2010", Phoenix Park, Korea, 2010.

      - "Amateur Radio: More than a hobby!", tutorial, DIRF
        "NDT 2010", Prague, Czech Republic, 2010.     

Besides the published articles and presented works, I am also a member of the following associations: IEEE Computer Society, IEEE Communications Society, WSEAS and ACM. In addition, I work on establishing an academic computer network that would use the amateur radio stations as the media. Some kinds of proposed networks exist elsewhere on this planet and I invite their administrators to contact me in order to cooperate.

14. Further information

14.1 Copyright

Copyright (c) 2000-2010 by Miroslav "Misko" Skoric, YT7MPB.

Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, with no Front-Cover Texts, and with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the license is available from http://www.fsf.org/licenses/fdl.html.

14.2 Disclaimer

Use the information in this document at your own risk. I disavow any potential liability of this document. Use of the concepts, examples, and/or other content of this document is entirely at your own risk.

All copyrights are owned by their owners, unless specifically noted otherwise. Use of a term in this document should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any trademark or service mark.

Naming of particular products or brands should not be seen as endorsements.

You are strongly recommended to take a backup of your system before major installation and backups at regular intervals.

14.3 News

This is not the first release of this mini-HOWTO. I hope to improve it whenever possible. Besides that, there are other documents that may help you to use amateur radio stuff on your computer. You can also look for AX.25 (mini-)HOWTO at the same location where you get this FBB mini-HOWTO.

This mini-HOWTO would be improved from time to time. If you think that the HOWTO on your Linux installation CD is some out-of-date, you may check for newest release on the Internet. It could be found within the main Linux Documentation Project or some of its mirrors.

14.4 Credits

This version of mini-HOWTO can thanks to:

Jean-Paul Roubelat, F6FBB, the author of FBB,
Per Olsen, LA6CU, the author of FBB documentation,
Jesus R., EB5AGF, the author of Protus,
Jose Marte, HI8GN, the 'packer' of 7.02g package,
Paula Dowie, G8PZT, the author of Xrouter,
Sima YT1SM, first Serbian translation HLP and TXT (v.5.15c)
Sasa 4N7AM, first Serbian translation HLP and TXT (v.7.00b)
Dragomir Kalaba, a local Linux 'guru'

and a variety of helpful radio amateurs world-wide.

Any comments or suggestions can be mailed to my email address: skoric at eunet dot rs

14.5 HOWTO

These are intended as the primary starting points to get the background information as well as show you how to solve a specific problem. Some relevant HOWTOs are Bootdisk, Installation, SCSI and UMSDOS. The main site for these is the LDP archive at Metalab (formerly known as Sunsite).

14.6 Mini-HOWTO

These are the smaller free text relatives to the HOWTOs. Some relevant mini-HOWTOs are Backup-With-MSDOS, Diskless, LILO, Large Disk, Linux+DOS+Win95+OS2, Linux+OS2+DOS, Linux+Win95, Linux+WindowsNT, Linux+NT-Loader, NFS-Root, Win95+Win+Linux, ZIP Drive, FBB packet-radio BBS etc. You can find these at the same place as the HOWTOs, usually in a sub directory called mini. Note that these are scheduled to be converted into SGML and become proper HOWTOs in the near future.

14.7 Local Resources

In most distributions of Linux there is a document directory installed, have a look in the /usr/doc directory. where most packages store their main documentation and README files etc. Also you will here find the HOWTO archive ( /usr/doc/HOWTO) of ready formatted HOWTOs and also the mini-HOWTO archive ( /usr/doc/HOWTO/mini) of plain text documents.

Many of the configuration files mentioned earlier can be found in the /etc directory. In particular you will want to work with the /etc/fstab file that sets up the mounting of partitions and possibly also /etc/mdtab file that is used for the md system to set up RAID.

The kernel source in /usr/src/linux is, of course, the ultimate documentation. In other words, use the source, Luke. It should also be pointed out that the kernel comes not only with source code which is even commented (well, partially at least) but also an informative documentation directory. If you are about to ask any questions about the kernel you should read this first, it will save you and many others a lot of time and possibly embarrassment.

Also have a look in your system log file ( /var/log/messages) to see what is going on and in particular how the booting went if too much scrolled off your screen. Using tail -f /var/log/messages in a separate window or screen will give you a continuous update of what is going on in your system.

You can also take advantage of the /proc file system that is a window into the inner workings of your system. Use cat rather than more to view the files as they are reported as being zero length. Reports are that less works well here.

14.8 Web Pages

There is a huge number of informative web pages out there and by their very nature they change quickly so don't be too surprised if these links become quickly outdated.

A good starting point is of course the Linux Documentation Project home page, or this one: Linux Documentation Project, an information central for documentation, project pages and much, much more.

Please let me know if you have any other leads that can be of interest.

15. Getting help

In the end you might find yourself unable to solve your problems and need help from someone else. The most efficient way is either to ask someone local or in your nearest Linux user group, search the web for the nearest one.

Another possibility is to ask on Usenet News in one of the many, many newsgroups available. The problem is that these have such a high volume and noise (called low signal-to-noise ratio) that your question can easily fall through unanswered.

No matter where you ask it is important to ask well or you will not be taken seriously. Saying just my disk does not work is not going to help you and instead the noise level is increased even further and if you are lucky someone will ask you to clarify.

Instead describe your problems in some detail that will enable people to help you. The problem could lie somewhere you did not expect. Therefore you are advised to list up the following information on your system:




Remember that booting text is logged to /var/log/messages which can answer most of the questions above. Obviously if the drives fail you might not be able to get the log saved to disk but you can at least scroll back up the screen using the SHIFT and PAGE UP keys. It may also be useful to include part of this in your request for help but do not go overboard, keep it brief as a complete log file dumped to Usenet News is more than a little annoying.